Anatomy



‘Overview of Anatomy & Physiology’

Anatomy - is the study of the structure of the body parts & their
relationship to one another.
Physiology - concerns with the function of the body’s structural
machinery - how the body works.
Topics of Anatomy
Gross Anatomy - is the study of the large body structures visible to the
naked eye. It can be approached in different ways.
Regional Anatomy - is the study of all the structures in one particular
region.
Systematic Anatomy - is when anatomy is studied system by system.
Surface Anatomy - is the study of the internal structures as they relate
to the overlying skin surface.
Microscopic Anatomy - is the study of structures too small to be seen
without a microscope.
Topics of Physiology
They are usually divided into operations of specific organ systems.
The Principle of Complementarity of structure & Function - Anatomy &
Physiology are taught together because the functions always reflect the
structure.
Levels of structural organization
Chemical level - this includes atoms & molecules.
Cellular level - is the smallest unit of living things.
Tissue level - are groups of similar cells that have a common function.
Organ level - an organ is at least two tissues that perform a specific
function of the body.
Organ System level - organs that work together to accomplish a
specific function.

Homework (pgs. 4-5) February 5,1999

‘Summary of the Body’s Organ Systems’

Integumentary System - forms of the external body covering; protects
deeper body tissue from injury; synthesizes vitamin D; site of
cutaneous (pain, pressure, ect.) receptors, & sweat & oil glands.
Skeletal System - protects & supports body organs; provides the
framework the muscles use to cause movement; blood cells are formed
within bones; stores minerals.
Muscular System - allows manipulation of the environment,
locomotion, & facial expression; maintains posture; produces heat.
Nervous System - fast-acting control system of the body; responds to
internal & external changes of the body by activating appropriate
muscles & glands.
Endocrine System - glands secrete hormones that regulate processes
such as growth, reproduction, & nutrient use (metabolism) by body
cells.
Cardiovascular System - Blood vessels transport blood, which carries
oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, ect.; the heart pumps blood.
Lymphatic System/Immunity - Picks up fluids leaked from blood
vessels & returns it to the blood; disposes of debris in the lymphatic
stream; houses white blood cells (lymphocytes) involved in immunity.
The immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances
within the body.
Respiratory System - keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen &
removes carbon dioxide; the gaseous exchange occurs through the
walls of the air sacs of the lungs.
Digestive System - breaks down food into absorbable units that enter
the blood for distribution to the body cells; indigestible foodstuffs are
eliminated as feces.
Urinary System - eliminates nitrogenous waste from the body;
regulates water, electrolytes, & the acid-based balance in the blood.
Male Reproductive System - overall function is the production of
offspring. Testes produce sperm & male sex hormones; ducts & glands
aid in delivery of sperm to the female reproductive tract.
Female Reproductive System - overall function is the production of
offspring. Ovaries produce eggs & female sex hormones; remaining
structures serve as sites for fertilization & the development of the
fetus. Mammary glands of female breast produce milk to nourish the
newborn.





















Classwork (pgs. 6-8) February 8, 1999

‘Maintaining Life’

Necessary Life Functions
Maintaining Boundaries - keeps its internal environment separate
from the external environment (ex.- skin or cell membrane).
Movement - all activities promoted by the muscular system; on the
cellular level, muscle cells contracting is called contractility.
Responsiveness - irritability is the ability to sense changes in the
environment & then respond to them.
Digestion - is the process of braking down ingested food into simple
molecules that can be absorbed into the blood.
Metabolism - all chemical reactions that occur within the body.
Excretion - is the process of removing wastes from the body; usually
refers to urine.
Reproduction - the making more of an organism; occurs asexually
(one) or sexually (two).
Growth - an increase in size.
Survival Needs
The goal of the body system is to maintain life. There are several factors
that need to be present, like:
Nutrients - these contain the chemical substances used for energy &
cell building.
Oxygen - chemical reactions in the body require oxygen.
Water - is the single most abundant substance in your body.
Homeostasis
Homeostasis - is the body’s ability to maintain a relatively stable internal
condition, even though the outside world changes. There are three factors
in the homeostatic control organism:
Receptor - sensor that monitors the environment.
Control Center - analyzes input it receives & determines the
appropriate action.
Effector - provides the means to the response.




























Classwork (pgs. 8-13, & 16) February 9, 1999

‘Positive & Negative Feedback’

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