Canadian History WW1 Essays and Papers

This essay has a total of 1504 words and 6 pages.

Canadian History WW1

The article “Race and Recruitment In World War 1: Enlistment of Visible Minorities in the
Canadian Expeditionary Force*” Written by author James W. ST G. Walker that can be found
in the Canadian Historial Review (March 1989 Edition) discusses the discrimination against
minorities during World War 1. Outlining the events from 1914 through 1917 that depict
this injustice against visible minorities. It gives a detailed view of changing
attitutudes of government and recruiting officials towards visible minorities and their
position and value to the war efffort. James W. ST G. Walker goes about trying to prove
that while World War 1 may have been a step forward for both women and Eastern Europe it
was anything but for the visible minorities of Canada. World War 1 only strengthened the
beliefs of a white man’s world by being a white man’s war.

At the onset of the war in 1914 the enlistment rate was very high. Due to both patriotic
and economic factors the initial numbers were very high. This continued for over a year.
During this time the requirments to enlist in the war included an unofficail race
criteria. No visible minorities were welcomed to join the war. It was the unofficial
opinion of recruiting officials that visible minorities, such as Blacks and Native
Indians, could not fight in a white mans war. These minorities were outraged. They
demanded to know why they were being turned away. Though it was clear that they were being
excluded for racial reasons in 1914 they were offered no remedies to these unjust
circumstances. The Japenese, in particular, became more persistant in their attempts to
enlist. It was believed that winning the battle to join the war effort would help win the
war against discrimination. Although there was still the strong belief that whites and
black could not fight together the insistance of the black communities to be allowed to
participate in the war led to the creation of a seperate black platoon. In 1915 the
Japenese community tryed to put together a segragated Japenese unit only to be rejected by
Militia headquartes.

In the spring of 1915 a new policy on recruitment was instituted. Now any patriotic person
or group could form a battalion. Even this was not enough to fill the growing need for
men. So in 1916 the active recruiting of visible minorities was started. All minorities
were recruited by officials who belived that all visible minorites would be later
transferrred to special units. By the summer of 1916 minorities were being actively
recruited for infantry battalions. At the same time visible minorities were also being
recruited for non-combat labour. Two years into the war the policy on recruiting visible
minorities had been completely turned around. Visible minorities were now being welcomed
and actively recruited. This change had come too late. The visible minorities were now
hesitating to join the war effort. The few Blacks and Native Indians who had slipped
through the discriminatort system to make it to the war were sending back stories of
unfair treatment and horrible conditions. The special units designated for visible
minorites who had been preparing for combat were constantly being stalled from going to
Europe. Those who did make it to Europe were for the most part not put in combat
situations once they arrived in Europe. They were seperated and used for manual labor.
Visible minorities were now questioning the Militia and their motives behind welcoming
visible minorities into the army. The saw what was happening to pre-existing battalians
of minorities. They were being seperated to fill gaps left by casualties or reduced to
trench diggers. The demotion of No.2 to a construction company was a grave diappointment
that left Black minorities in particular distrustful and unwilling to volunteer for

During this time the casualty rate was rising. There was a great need for recruits. So
with the drop in volunteers the Canadian government turned to consription. After having
been turned away multiple times and then being treated badly, the minorities were
outraged. Native Indians were very loud in their refusal to register for consciption.
Their argument was they were not considered citizens nor were they afforded the rights of
citizens so why should they be forced into consciption. The government was forced to give
them immunity from conscription. The Japanese were the next to follow. They too were not
citizens. Although they were considered landed Canadians; they did not have the same
rights as whites. They two were given immunity. Blacks were unfortunately not able to
benefit from these cases. They were considered citizens and therefore they were forced to
register for conscription. The blacks used this opportunilty to once again try and
salvage they position in the war. They insisted if they were going to be forced to comply
Continues for 3 more pages >>

  • Abortion
    abortion Click Here to Visit our Sponsor Abortion Life or Death ÄÄÄ Who Chooses? In Roman times, abortion and the destruction of unwanted children was permissible, but as out civilization has aged, it seems that such acts were no longer acceptable by rational human beings, so that in 1948, Canada along with most other nations in the world signed a declaration of the United Nations promising every human being the right to life. The World Medical Association meeting in Geneve at the same time, sta
  • A modernday revolution American turmoil in the 196
    A modernday revolution American turmoil in the 1960s Hubert Humphrey once stated, “When we say, ‘One nation under God, with liberty and justice for all,’ we are talking about all people. We either ought to believe it or quit saying it” (Hakim 111). During the 1960’s, a great number of people did, in fact, begin to believe it. These years were a time of great change for America. The country was literally redefined as people from all walks of life fought to uphold their standards on what they beli
  • AfricanAmericans in the Civil War
    AfricanAmericans in the Civil War The foundation for black participation in the Civil War began more than a hundred years before the outbreak of the war. Blacks in America had been in bondage since early colonial times. In 1776, when Jefferson proclaimed mankind’s inalienable right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, the institution of slavery had become firmly established in America. Blacks worked in the tobacco fields of Virginia, in the rice fields of South Carolina, and toiled in
  • Did america do enought to help the jews in the hol
    did america do enought to help the jews in the holocaust Did the Western World do enough for the Jews in th Description of this essay : Western Civilization - World War II Did the Western World do enough for the Jews in the Holocaust "When they came for the gypsies, I did not speak, for I am not a gypsy. When they came for the Jew Western Civilization - World War II Did the Western World do enough for the Jews in the Holocaust "When they came for the gypsies, I did not speak, for I am not a gyps
  • Dreaming in the 1960s
    Dreaming in the 1960s Dreaming in the 1960s In 1962, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. said his most famous words: "I have a dream." He was not the only one who felt this way. For many, the 1960s was a decade in which their dreams about America might be fulfilled. For Martin Luther King Jr., this was a dream of a truly equal America; for John F. Kennedy, it was a dream of a young vigorous nation that would put a man on the moon; and for the hippy movement, it was one of love, peace, and freedom. The 1
  • Rooselvelt
    Rooselvelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the 32nd president of the United States. Roosevelt served longer than any other president. His unprecedented election to four terms in office will probably never be repeated; the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, passed after his death, denies the right of any person to be elected president more than twice. Roosevelt held office during two of the greatest crises ever faced by the United States: the Great De
  • Uncletomscabin
    uncletomscabin Analysis of Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe “The book, Uncle Tom\'s Cabin, is thought of as a fantastic, even fanatic, representation of Southern life, most memorable for its emotional oversimplification of the complexities of the slave system,” says Gossett (4). Harriet Beecher Stowe describes her own experiences or ones that she has witnessed in the past through the text in her novel. She grew up in Cincinnati where she had a very close look at slavery. Located on the
  • Village to City
    Village to City From Village to City Over the years of history, there have been many civilizations. We will look at the earliest of all civilizations known to man. From Village to City began in 8000BC and spanned all the way into 3000BC. Throughout this report we will look at the 6 key features of this civilization as outlined in our classroom discussions, and hope to convey what we have learned in a useful, and interesting way. The development of a city: The first city to be built was Jericho,
  • Rumor of war
    rumor of war Summary of Symbolism Presented by \'Vietnam/War\' In reading Philip Caputo\'s book, "A Rumor of War," I discovered that he strongly presented a similar idea to that of Tim O\'Brien in his book, "The Things They Carried." This is the idea that war can not bring or cause good, it only produces varying amounts of evil. Philip Caputo volunteered for the Marines because he was looking for a way to prove himself, and he saw the Marines as an honorable way to do so. He also originally saw
  • Rumor of war1
    rumor of war1 Summary of Symbolism Presented by \'Vietnam/War\' In reading Philip Caputo\'s book, "A Rumor of War," I discovered that he strongly presented a similar idea to that of Tim O\'Brien in his book, "The Things They Carried." This is the idea that war can not bring or cause good, it only produces varying amounts of evil. Philip Caputo volunteered for the Marines because he was looking for a way to prove himself, and he saw the Marines as an honorable way to do so. He also originally saw
    NAFTA Introduction to International Business Professor Natalie M. Leonard NAFTA’s Today & Tommorow By Sema Kaya Richard Hushion Chuck Lundy Vui Loong Tsui Joab Magara Abdul Jahadhmy Table of Contents Page NAFTA Background and History 2 Positive Effects on NAFTA 2 Growth in Trade 2 Growth in U.S. Exports 2 U.S Compliance with NAFTA 4 U.S.-Mexico Trade Relations 4 Reform Process in Mexico 4 Negative Effects on NAFTA 5 On the Mexican Side 5 On the American Side 6 Environmental Issues 7 Future of NA
  • Starting a business
    starting a business Introduction More and more people are beginning to open their minds to new business ventures. It seems like it is becoming the popular move. By opening a business there could be huge profit to be made, depending on the market. On the other hand, there are risks and losses that may occur as well. It is said that there are two reasons why people start a business. The first reason is because they have inspiration for what they believe would be a great idea and the second is from
  • Defining Power
    Defining Power Subject: World History (But it applies to much more) Title: "Power Comes From the Barrel of a Gun" - took the opposing view "Would you respect me, If I didn’t have this gun? ‘Cause without it, I don’t get it, And that’s why I carry one." -Phil Collins Power. A word from which many meanings derive. To each individual, it means something distinct and it is how one uses their power that makes up who they are. Power does not come from the barrel of a gun. A gun can do nothing without
  • Eskimos
    eskimos peoples of Alaska and their Eskimo Culture Alaska is still the last frontier in the minds of many Americans. Interest in the "Great Land" has increased sharply since Alaska The Native became a full fledged state in January o f 1959. In spite of this great interest, many Americans know very little of the Eskimos, Indians and Aleuts (Al-ee-oots) who live in the remote regions. At the time Alaska was discovered in 1741 by Vitus Bering, Alaska Natives populated all parts of Alaska including
  • Lord of the Flies4
    Lord of the Flies4 Lord of the flies essay William Golding The Island is a microcosm of the evil we produce in the world today. Greed, power, domination are all factors of evil in the story line and in today’s society. The first human instinct is survival. The fittest will survive, as in the book, and in today’s world. For example, someone who is very skilled in math or physical feats may receive a scholarship pertaining to their skill. Taller and attractive people seem to get the better and hig
  • Margaret Atwood
    Margaret Atwood Fight for the Female Margaret Atwood, a contemporary Canadian author, has been classified as one of this century’s\' most feminist, and near dystopian novelists. Her works illustrate how feminism has caused the downfall of contemporary society. Margaret Atwood, a prominent feminist author of the twentieth century, is driven by her sense of social reform and her realistic view of a disturbed society to produce works such as The Handmaids Tale. Atwood was born on November 18, 1943
  • Nineteen Eighty Four Short Essay
    Nineteen Eighty Four Short Essay Nineteen Eighty Four Short Essay In Canada, we have the freedom to do almost anything. In the novel Nineteen Eighty Four, there is no freedom. Although there are no laws in Oceania, there are consequences to doing thoughtcrime. The consequences are used not for punishment but for the limitation of people who may perform a crime in the future. There are many differences in our society today and the society that of Nineteen Eighty Four. In our society today, we enc
  • Increase immigration into Canada
    Increase immigration into Canada Increase Immigration into Canada Good afternoon ladies and gentlemen. As we all now we are all gathered here today to debate, argue over a bill concerning an increase in immigration. We may not all be on the same side. But personally I am for increasing immigration and in the following I will explain, my reasons. Since the early 1600’s and after the great depression Canada has had many ups’ and downs’ concerning immigration. It has had immigrants flea from all di
  • Nafta
    Nafta Introduction Summary In January 1994, the United States, Mexico, and Canada implemented the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The goal of NAFTA is to create better trading conditions through tariff reduction, removal of investment barriers, and improvement of intellectual property protection. NAFTA continues to gradually reduce tariffs on set dates and aims to eliminate all tariffs by the year 2004. Before NAFTA was established, investing in Mexico was a difficult process. Inves
  • The Legue The UN the Future
    The Legue The UN the Future During the First World War several world leaders such as President of the United States(U.S.) Woodrow Wilson and South African Prime Minster Jan Smuts, advocated the need for an international organization that preserved peace and settled disputes by arbitration. When peace negotiations began in October 1918,United States president Woodrow Wilson insisted that his Fourteen Points serve as a basis for the signing of the Armistice . The Armistice included the formation o
  • Western Canada Concept
    Western Canada Concept The Western Canada Concept The Western Canada Concept is a separatist party led by Alberta lawyer Doug Christie. The party is devoted to a peaceful secession of the four Western provinces and the two territories from Canada. By means of four referenda held in each respective western province, the Western Canada Concept would establish an independent nation. A wide spectrum of reasons, encompassing political, economic, and cultural issues, fuels the group’s drive for a sove
  • A Journey Through The Golden Gates of Promise
    A Journey Through The Golden Gates of Promise A Journey Though the “Golden Gates” of Promise Great controversy exists over the true promises of the “Golden Gates” in the United States. Discrimination occurs with different ethnic groups, but for those immigrants permitted into the country, the opportunities are excellent. The laws and practices established to control immigration into the United States limit the amount of poverty that can be present in the country. Without these important practice
  • Canadian Immigration Policy
    Canadian Immigration Policy The Canadian Immigration Policy and the Racial Discrimination it Induced The laissez faire approach to immigration that Canada had inherited over its lifetime began to fade away in 1884. British Columbia had become very concerned with the number of single male Chinese that had emigrated to the province since the 1860\'s when the American gold fields dried up. Thus, the provincial government took political action over the next year to finally impose a head tax of ,
  • England 17th
    england 17th Abortion Debate - Pro-Life Stance In Roman times, abortion and the destruction of unwanted children was permissible, but as out civilization has aged, it seems that such acts were no longer acceptable by rational human beings, so that in 1948, Canada along with most other nations in the world signed a declaration of the United Nations promising every human being the right to life. The World Medical Association meeting in Geneve at the same time, stated that the utmost respect for hu
  • Events in Slavery
    Events in Slavery Events that Effected Slavery Essay written by Curtis Cupples Introduction "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness" (Thomas Jefferson). The only problem with this passage from the Declaration of Independence is that it does not say, "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men and Negroes are created
  • Fredrick Douglass2
    Fredrick Douglass2 Frederick Douglass "Abolitionist/Editor " A biography of the life of Frederick Douglass by Sandra Thomas -------------------- -------------------- -------------------- -------------------- Frederick Douglass was one of the foremost leaders of the abolitionist movement, which fought to end slavery within the United States in the decades prior to the Civil War. A brilliant speaker, Douglass was asked by the American Anti-Slavery Society to engage in a tour of lectures, and so became
  • George Washmgton
    George Washmgton GEORGE WASHINGTON Biography George Washington was born on Feb. 22, 1732 (Feb. 11, 1731/2, old style) in Westmoreland County, Va. While in his teens, he trained as a surveyor, and at the age of 20 he was appointed adjutant in the Virginia militia. For the next three years, he fought in the wars against the French and Indians, serving as Gen. Edward Braddock\'s aide in the disastrous campaign against Fort Duquesne. In 1759, he resigned from the militia, married Martha Dandridge Cu
  • Reform in the Age of jackson
    Reform in the Age of jackson “From about 1825 until the outbreak of the civil war in 1861, the atmosphere in the nation was one of reform” (Boardman, 122). There were five major reform movements present in 19th century America. There was the Utopianism/Communita rian Movement, which established an ideal society away from present politics. Educational reforms were important in the fact of creating taxes to support the public school system, higher education for adults, and mandatory education and a
  • The Aztecs1
    The Aztecs1 Towards the middle of the continent near the Pacific ocean at an elevation of almost seven thousand five hundred feet is the Valley of Mexico. The Valley is surrounded by towering rocks which seem to have been placed there for the sole purpose of protecting the land. The land itself that at one time was full of greenery and trees is now somewhat bare and, in some places, white with salt from the draining of waters. Five lakes are spread over the Valley, which occupy about one tenth o
  • The iroquois and the US constitution
    The iroquois and the US constitution Nothing is so fundamental yet so important to the freedoms we enjoy as Americans as the United States Constitution, which guarantees our right to do and say as we please so long as it does no harm. The Iroquois Federation preamble describes the purpose of the government set up by the government in their statements the emphasis is placed on perfect peace for the welfare of the people. Their focus was fighting for, the liberty of the people. Among the Indian na
  • The Under Ground Railroad
    The Under Ground Railroad The Voyage to the Free Land In America’s 19th century, many slaves escaped North by way of the dangerous Underground Railroad to attain freedom. It was the most effective protest against slavery, resulting in many free lives. The term Underground Railroad does not mean underground tunnels, but rather secret routes escaped slaves followed, usually leading them north to Canada; the free land. Thousands of slaves escaped yearly through treacherous conditions to attain thei
  • The US 19001909
    The US 19001909 The United States: 1900-1909 The early 1900s was a great time for Americans. The early 1900s brought many reforms, changes, and inventions to the country. Many people, around the world, began to recognize the US as a world power. With the nation’s growing economic and naval power, it was obvious that the US was a major contender for world domination. Throughout the early 1900s the United States was dramatically changed from a little nation to a nation of great wealth and prosperi
  • Titanic
    Titanic I have always been intrigued by the Titanic, but my interest boomed with the recent development in how the side of the ship was damaged. I was amazed that instead of causing a gaping wound, as was previously believed, the iceberg that Titanic hit merely caused a series of small rips in the side of the ship. Sonar was used to determine that the side of the ship had six small slits that were no bigger than a single hand (http://www.titanic. cc/sonar.htm). This research amazed me because of
  • Us constitution
    us constitution The US Constitution The Constitution is the basis of all laws in the United States. This Constitution is a document written by "outcasts" of England. The Constitution of the United States sets forth the nation\'s fundamental laws. It establishes the form of the national government and defines the rights and liberties of the American people. It also lists the aims of the government and the methods of achieving them. The Constitution was written to organize a strong national govern
  • Womens rights in canada
    womens rights in canada Mobilizing Men By: Angela Spiers With the emergence of the Women\'s Movement, a deep cleavage was created in gender relations, seemingly pitting women against men in the struggle for equality and status. An effect of this separation in spheres, was a collective of men feeling as if they were being misrepresented, or left behind during a revolutionary period of changing gender relations. A product of this was the conception of men\'s groups around the world. This paper att
  • Abortion misc16
    Abortion misc16 n Roman times, abortion and the destruction of unwanted children was permissible, but as out civilization has aged, it seems that such acts were no longer acceptable by rational human beings, so that in 1948, Canada along with most other nations in the world signed a declaration of the United Nations promising every human being the right to life. The World Medical Association meeting in Geneve at the same time, stated that the utmost respect for human life was to be from the mome
  • Abortion misc3
    Abortion misc3 Abortion is the termination of pregnancy before birth, resulting in, or accompanied by, the death of the fetus. Some abortions occur naturally because a fetus does not develop normally. Or because the mother has an injury or disorder that prevents her from carrying the pregnancy to a full term. This type of abortion is commonly known as a miscarriage. Other abortions are induced. Induced abortions are intentionally brought on, either because a pregnancy is unwanted or presents a r
  • Anti Abortion
    Anti Abortion Anti Abortion By: Atif Malik Since the Darwinian Revolution of the 19th century our society has turned upside down. Everything under the sun had become questionable, the origin of life, how we came to be, where are we headed and what to do in the here all became questions in life. But one of the greatest impacts of this new age thinking is its effect on our Old World values. Western societies values, morals and ethics became debatable, with some people striving for change and other
  • Day trading
    day trading 08 IN THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE AT PEACE PALACE, THE HAGUE THE NETHERLANDS 1999 GENERAL LIST NO. 104 KINGDOM OF AUGUSTINE, APPLICANT V. REPUBLIC OF VINOY,RESPONDENT MEMORIAL FOR APPLICANT 1999 International Environmental Moot Court Competition TABLE OF CONTENTS INDEX OF AUTHORITIES......... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ...x STATEMENT OF JURISDICTION........ .................... .................... ..........
  • Death penalty misc15
    Death penalty misc15 ABOLISH THE DEATH PENALTY I believe the death penalty should be abolished. I believe it should be abolished because it does not help curb crime. Another reason is It is not morally fair or just. We can’t be absolute in making sure people are guilty of the crime. It is more expensive than Imprisonment. The judgments are not completely impartial. I believe it is cruel and unusual punishment which is against the law. The death penalty does not help prevent crime. The murder rat
  • Euthanasia1
    Euthanasia1 Euthanasia is clearly a deliberate and intentional aspect of a killing. Taking a human life, even with subtle rites and consent of the party involved is barbaric. No one can justly kill another human being. Just as it is wrong for a serial killer to murder, it is wrong for a physician to do so as well, no matter what the motive for doing so may be. Many thinkers, including almost all orthodox Catholics, believe that euthanasia is immoral. They oppose killing patients under any circum
  • Gun Control2
    Gun Control2 In addressing new laws of gun control, one has to look at both sides of the argument. How will new guns laws affect violence in schools and on the streets? How do loyal, law-abiding gun owners feel about these new laws. These news laws are set as all sales of firearms must be registered, all purchasers must be licensed, and no individual may purchase more than one gun per month. There will always be arguments on both sides on such controversial laws like these. Pros and Cons can be
  • Gun Laws
    Gun Laws States from Michigan to Nebraska to California, as well as the federal government, are considering new rules on letting law-abiding citizens carry guns. Does allowing citizens to carry concealed handguns deter violent crimes? Or does this cause otherwise law-abiding citizens to harm each other? Thirty-one states now have guaranteed their citizens the right to carry concealed handguns if applicants do not have a criminal record or a history of significant mental illness. So what have the
  • Leonard Peltier Case
    Leonard Peltier Case One of the modern Native Americans\' most prominent leaders, Leonard Peltier, was arrested in the summer of 1975 and eventually sentenced to two life terms for a crime many believe he did not commit. The conviction and imprisonment of Leonard Peltier is an injustice. His prosecution by the United States government represents yet another attempt to snuff out American Indian culture and leaders. The outspokenness of Peltier and other AIM members may be the only reason why Leon
  • Prostitution the uncontrolalble Vise misc
    Prostitution the uncontrolalble Vise misc “There are women who search for love, and there are those that search for money.” Today, the term woman simply denotes one’s sex. It does not define her character, morals and values, or even her profession. However, this was not always the case. At the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century, during the Progressive Era, there was a drive for reform. Various social problems became targets for investigation and intervention: ch
  • The Milgaard Case
    The Milgaard Case MILGAARD If one was asked to think of one phrase to describe the Milgaard case the only phrase which would be suitable and appropriate would be the old saying “at the wrong place, at the wrong time”. Mr. Milgaard’s whole case revolves around those words. His trial is one full of corruption, misleading and dishonesty by the people and system that we trust in daily. It is an example of a misidentify and the incapability of the justice system to provide the Mr. Milgaard with a fai
  • Canadian Adverising Industry
    Canadian Adverising Industry Beth McNeill Introduction The topic of discussion in this paper is advertising in Canada. It will argue that the Canadian advertising industry strives to protect themselves from competition in the United States. The paper will discuss how the Canadian advertising industry allots their money to different forms of media to ward off the United States competition. Tracing the history of advertising from the early 1960’s to the present day, will help to show why Canada co
  • Ritalin
    Ritalin Ritalin The Babysitter of the 90\'s 07/03/2000 Prepared for Nursing 2116 by Tracey Hardin Ritalin (Methylphenidate) is a mild CNS stimulant. In medicine, Ritalin\'s primary use is treatment of Attention Deficit /Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). The mode of action in humans is not completely understood, but Ritalin presumably activates the arousal system of the brain stem and the cortex to produce its stimulant effect. Recently, the frequency of diagnosis for ADHD has increased dramatically.
  • Abortion A Womans Basic Right
    Abortion A Womans Basic Right Abortion: A Woman’s Basic Right During the past quarter century abortion has joined race and war as one of the most debatable subjects of controversy in the United States. It discusses human interaction where ethics, emotions and law come together. Abortion poses a moral, social and medical dilemma that forces many individuals to create an emotional and violent atmosphere. There are many points of view toward abortion, but the only two fine distinctions are "pro-cho
  • All my sons
    all my sons ABOLITIONIST MOVEMENT. Beginning in the 1780s during the time of the American Revolution there arose in Western Europe and the United States a movement to abolish the institution of slavery and the slave trade that supported it. Advocates of this movement were called abolitionists. From the 16th to the 19th century some 15 million Africans were kidnapped and shipped across the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas. They were sold as laborers on the sugar and cotton plantations of South and