CitySuburban Dichotomy




After LAPD officers Laurence Powell, Theodor Briseno, and Timoty Wind, supervised Sgt. Stacey Koon, were found "not guilty" of beating citizen King, the Los Angeles riots erupted. Why did the riots occur? The rebellion was an outcome of the fiscal and social troubles which conffroting America\'s city and now. To understand riots, one must understand the causes of social rage, ussually said to be racism, poverty, lack of economic opportunity, and why people who experience this rage manage it in such a destructive manner.
America is a suburban country and urban America is still losing population. Today about three-quarters of all Americans live in metropolitan areas. Two-thirds of them - in other words, about half the nation\'s population - live in suburbs. Furthermore, in every region of the country - even where city population are increasing - the fastest-growing parts of the metropolitan areas are the surrounding suburbs. During the 1980\'s, for example, Los Angeles grew by 17.4%, while its suburbs grew by 29.5%. Baltimore lost 6.4% of its population while its suburbs grew by 16.5%. Between 1970 and 1990, Chicago was loosing 17% of its population as its suburbs gained 24%.
Furthermore, in fact the suburbs dominate politics. The number of Congressmembers who represent cities is declining, while the number who represent suburbs is increasing. For example, in 1992,when the riots in Los Angeles occured, the House had 98 urban districts, 170 suburban districts, and 88 rural districts; the rest were a mix of urban-suburban or rural-suburban populations. Of course, members of Congress who present "suburban" areas may be personally sympathetic to the plight of the central cities,but it does not mean they will vote to spend their constituents\' tax dollars to alleviate urban problems.
These aspects have led to the movement of businesses to the suburbs, and these forces are extremely difficult to counteract. Because people live, work, and pursue many of their leisure activities in the suburbs, its income much bigger than cities\'. In 1960\'s, the per capita income of cities was 5% greater than their surrounding suburbs; by the 90\'s it had fallen to 84% of suburban income.
As a result, America\'s cities now face a shrinking tax base and fiscal traumas; cities become increasingly populated by the poor. Poverty and racism are the most fundamental problems facing our cities. Most of America\'s 38 million poor people live in our cities and they are increasingly concentrated in ghettos and barrios. In 1980, there were 2.4 million poor people living in ghetto - 8.9 persent of all U.S. poor peple. Their poverty stems from both high unemployment and low-wage work, but their concentration results from racial discrimination. Sixty-two percent of non-Hispanic blaks live in blocks that are 60% or more black. Forty percent of the Hispanic population live in blocks that are 60% or more Hispanic. At least two out of every three white Americans live in essentially all-white neighborhoods. The black and Hispanic poor are much more likely than the white poor to live in poverty neighborhoods. There are everything: high level unemployment, falling incomes, the huge deficit of skills, terrible housing situation, overcrowding, exorbitant rent, alarming failure of public health and health care delivery which altogether represents the urban crisis.
William Julius Wilson claims that "many of today\'s problems in the inner-city ghetto neighborhoods - crime, family dissolution, welfare, low levels of social organization and so on are fundamentally a consequence of a disappearance of work" and indeed many people argue that only an employment oriented policy can reduce the social problems of these communities. Yet, stimulating true economic development in the inner city through tax incentives or direct capital subsidies has proven very difficult. As a result, policy makers have begun to develop ways to change the supply of labor by bringing the people in the inner city to the jobs in the suburbs, instead of bringing jobs to the people in the inner city. For example, in 1979, was created the Gautreaux program purpose of which was attemting to break up the poverty community. The program has given 6,000 inner city families (primarily single mothers) vouchers that allow them to relocate to low poverty neighborhoods throughout a six county area in and around Chicago.
In 1992 was made an experiment to compare