Electronic Revolution



Electronic Revolution

The electronic revolution, sometimes referred to as the technological or industrial revolution has completely changed the entire world. Everyone is reeking the benefits of technology. From electricity, to telephones, to television, to satellites, to computers, to cellular phones; technology is everywhere.
The most fundamental part of anything electric is electricity. Two thousand years ago, in the 16th century, William Gilbert proved that many substances are electric and that they have two electrical effects. In 1747, Benjamin Franklin in America and William Watson in England independently reached the same conclusion: all materials possess a single kind of electrical "fluid" that can penetrate matter freely but that can be neither created nor destroyed. The action of rubbing merely transfers the fluid from one body to another, electrifying both. Franklin and Watson originated the principle of conservation of charge: the total quantity of electricity in an insulated system is constant.
One of the most important communication discoveries is the telephone. Alexander Graham Bell is generally acknowledged as the inventor of the telephone, although a number of other inventors in his day contributed to various aspects of the device. Bell\'s most important contribution was his view of the telephone as a means of communication over real distances, using human speech instead of such nonvocal codes as smoke signals, tomtoms, or Morse code. (Nally) Bell and others discovered that the sounds of speech could be converted to an electrical signal, transmitted over copper wires, and converted back to sound at the receiving device.
Today\'s telephone system links the entire globe. The telephone industry in the United States alone generates about $200 billion yearly in revenues and is the largest segment of the giant communications industry. (http://www.cyberstreet...) People can communicate instantly with each other all around the world.
The automobile or car is the most widely used form of transportation. The automobile is a self-propelled, wheeled, steerable vehicle used for transporting people and small cargoes on land. Although the gasoline automobile first appeared in Germany, automotive production on a commercial scale began in France about 1890. Commercial production in the United States began around the turn of the century and was qualitatively inferior to that in Europe. In those days the industry was an assortment of small firms, each turning out a few cars by handicraft methods. American automobile plants were assembly operations that used parts made by independent suppliers. By contrast, European companies were more likely to build the entire car themselves. (Normann)
The assembly-line technique, first introduced by Henry Ford in 1908, has become virtually universal. Almost all passenger automobiles and most commercial vehicles are made in this way. The technique has been greatly refined so that, instead of the rigid uniformity with which the Model T was turned out, a wide variety of options can be programmed into individual cars. Automation was introduced, initially for the manufacture of engines, in the early 1950s. Computer-controlled robot welding machines were first used in the 1970s; computerized machining of engine parts is a technology of the late 1980s. Today, hundreds of cars can be mass produced in a day.
Airplanes are used for quick mass transit for far distances. The first powered, controllable aircraft, Orville and Wilbur Wright\'s flying machine, demonstrated in its structure the same basic principles of flight as do today\'s high-flying jets. The wings of the original 1903 Wright Flyer resembled a box kite. A small pair of wings, called a canard, was located forward of the main wings and provided control about the pitch axis, allowing the aircraft to climb or descend. The canard performed the same function as the elevators that are attached to the horizontal stabilizers on most modern aircraft. Controlled, coordinated turns in the air were achieved through a method called "wing warping," which deflected the rear, or trailing, edges of the wing and rudder. With no cockpit, the pilot lay prone over the wing in a cradle arrangement and moved his body from side to side to actuate the controls that effected wing warping and changed the plane\'s direction.(Murphy)
The success of any one of the thousands of different craft made since the Wright brothers\' first flying machine depended on the quality of research, design, engineering, and manufacturing used to produce it. By the time World War II began, the aviation industry had accumulated enough experience