European History 622 Justinian

1. Justinian’s court was much like the Eastern’s rule; the subjects were spaced from the rulers in space, dress and obedience. The laws were in Latin, even though the common language was Greek.

 622- Heraclius opened a successful attack on the Persians.
 628- At Ctesiphon a peace treat was signed in favor of Heraclius
 632- Muhammad’s followers conquered and ran the Empire.
 717-718- Leo III beat back Muslim attack on Constantinople.

3. Iconoclastic policy under Leo III forbid showing respect to holy images within churches and it also allowed the destruction of then images. This had a disastrous effect but brought the Western and Eastern churches together.

4. The issues that indicate how the Byzantium Emperor was associated with the church while also acting as the secular head of the state has to do with his responsibilities in protecting and aiding in the perseverance of his empire. This is what the people of the empire thought God wanted, so by doing his job emperor was thought as a holy figure, which placed him as the head of the churches with some restrictions.

5. The Byzantium Empire bureaucracy differed from the Roman Empire in that the Roman Empire did not have a fiscal system, a state postal service or a secret police. They also collected money from the 10 percent tariff on trade and from the monopolies, while the Roman Empire did not have a budget. The Byzantium bureaucracy had skilled diplomats, which kept the enemies divided and used bribes, tributes and subsides, the Roman Empire used a basic administration without a professional civil service. The Eubuchs were used for important positions in the government in the Byzantium Empire, while queens and woman of the court preformed that job in the Roman Empire.

6. The Byzantine bureaucracy was run mostly by the emperor, who also controlled justice, with the aid of a civil service. The government had a fiscal system, a state postal service and a secrete army. It collected a 10 percent tax from the trade and more money from state monopolies. The Eunuchs filled the most important positions in the government.

Roman Catholic Greek Orthodox
Control of the Churches Clergy Emperor
Filioque dispute Holy spirit proceeds from the Father and from the Son Holy spirit proceeds only from the father
Rules for churches No divorce and no married priests Divorce because of adultery and married priests
Languages Latin and no vernacular languages Allowed vernacular languages (Greek, Coptic…)
Centralization Centralized control over Christianity under the papacy Relied on secular authority for the individual churches
Conversion of Slavs Used force to gain more land and to convert people Converted Slavs and Serbs into Christianity

8. As a result of Cyrillic and Methodius’ work, today the Serbs and Slavs are Christians.

9. The Byzantium society was divided into two parts, the urban and rural. In the urban parts there were paved and illuminated streets and magnificent churches and palaces. The rich lived along excellent surroundings in huge palaces and where divided from the poor, who lived in sprawling slums with a criminal environment. The rural society consisted of soldier/sailor farmers and laborers. The farmers made decisions about uncultivated or common land, collected taxes, elected judges and other officials needed for the government.

10. Guilds were creates to ensure the products had good quality. These guilds helped make a state monopoly and the products produced where sent all over the world giving the empire more money.

11. The women’s role in the Byzantium Empire where centered on the home with limitations in contacting with men outside the family. The Byzantine women wore veils over their heads, but not their faces. The nuns where not allowed to perform charity work or run schools. The only women who had power were those that were at the imperial and aristocratic level. Poor women had to aid in family agriculture, become street vendors, enter the theater or become prostitutes. The male relatives protected the women and children, but the women did have protection for their goods, money and land. In the East women were discouraged by the churches to remarry.
There were three types of institutions of higher learning: a palace school for the laymen, trained civil servants in language, law and rhetoric; patriarchal schools instructed priests in rhetoric and theology; and monastic schools taught young monks the mystical writings of the past. With the decrease of public grammar