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n the development and extension of Formal Control (characteristic of modern societies), (Rational Systems), Control through Technology), (Irrationality of Rationality).

Value-Oriented (like conflict theory)==> create a more human(e) system.



Stanley Cohen: The Fishing Net (Totally Administered Society)
Control mechanisms (police, welfare, MI, etc) constantly sweeping through society, catching, processing (tagging, labeling) and recycling populations (Spitzer)



"The New Penology":
"One reason for the new penology is a revision in the concept of poverty. Terms like the "underclass" are now used to describe large portions of the population who are locked into an inescapable cycle of poverty and despair. Criminal justice managers (emphasis added) now group people by various collectives based on their racial and social characteristics. Rather than seek individual rehabilitation they are oriented toward the more realistic task of monitoring and managing intractable groups. The fact that the underclass is permanent leaves little hope that its members, many of whom are in the correctional population, can be helped. Penology then stresses the low-cost management of a permanent offender population." (Larry Siegel, "Criminal Justice Update," Fall 1993, West Publications)



Michael Foucault:
Historical movement has been from brutal, overt repression to rational, scientific, and bureaucratic control--Administrate/Heal.
Goal: pacify and secure a stable and predictable work force for modern capitalist industry (today, workers are no longer needed, so need to regulate even more efficiently)
Shift has been; from the many controlling the few, to the few controlling the many (Big Brother is Watching You!!!)
Problems with Foucault: Historical accuracy (empiricism vs. Structuralism)-- Thought and discourse as reality? Can we derive intentions from the consequences of behavior? Is a society without social control possible?


Central Ideas of Structuralism

Social control is problematic:
Not natural, but a product of social forces, group interests. Politics; winners and losers.


Control is coercive and repressive.

Control: Restrain troublesome populations
Unemployed and welfare
Prozac
Education and the "Hidden Curriculum"

When threat is reduced: dump them out (Spitzer\'s Social Junk)

Control may appear humane and benign, but is in reality oppressive.

Social Control is State (or state like) Control
Integrated institutional networks, agencies
Circulate the same group of "clients."
Even the media plays a role, shapes our perspective.

Social control is unified and coherent.

"Transcarceration":
Control activity moved from the individual body (demonic)==>to the Spirit (individual "therapy")==> to the "Body Social" (the Mass)