history of the computer

Konrad Zuse, a German engineer, completes the first general purpose progammable
calculator in 1941. He pioneers the use of binary math and boolean logic in electronic
Colossus, a British computer used for code-breaking, is operational by December of
1943. ENIAC, or Electronic Numerical Integrator Analyzor and Computer,is developed
by the Ballistics Research Laboratory in Maryland to assist in the preparation of firing
tables for artillery. It is built at the University of Pennsylvania\'s Moore School of
Electrical Engineering and completed in November 1945.
Bell Telephone Laboratories develops the transistor in 1947.
UNIVAC, the Universal Automatic Computer, is developed in 1951. It can store 12,000
digits in random access mercury-delay lines.
EDVAC, for Electronic Discrete Variable Computer, is completed under contract for the
Ordinance Department in 1952.
In 1952 G.W. Dummer, a radar expert from the British Royal Radar Establishment,
proposes that electronic equipment be manufactured as a solid block with no connecting
wires. The prototype he builds doesn\'t work and he receives little support for his research.
Texas Instruments and Fairchild semiconductor both announce the integrated circuit in
The IBM 360 is introduced in April of 1964 and quickly becomes the standard
institutional mainframe computer. By the mid-80s the 360 and its descendents will have
generated more than $100 billion in revenue for IBM.
Texas Instruments and Fairchild semiconductor both announce the integrated circuit in
Ivan Sutherland demonstrates a program called Sketchpad on a TX-2 mainframe at MIT\'s
Lincoln Labs in 1962. It allows him to make engineering drawings with a light pen.
A typical minicomputer costs about $20,000.
1965: An IC that cost $1000 in 1959 now costs less than $10. Gordon Moore predicts that
the number of components in an IC will double every year. This is known as Moore\'s
Doug Engelbart demonstrates in 1968 a word processor, an early hypertext system and a
collaborative application: three now common computer applications.
Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce found Intel in 1968.
Xerox creates its Palo Alto Research Center - Xerox PARC - in 1969. Its mission is to
explore the "architecture of information."
Fairchild Semiconductor introduces a 256-bit RAM chip in 1970.
In late 1970 Intel introduces a 1K RAM chip and the 4004, a 4-bit microprocessor. Two
years later comes the 8008, an 8-bit microprocessor.

Bill Gates and Paul Allen form Traf-O-Data in 1971 to sell their computer
traffic-analysis systems.
1972: Gary Kildall writes PL/M, the first high-level programming language for the Intel
Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak are building and selling "blue boxes" in Southern
California in 1971.
April 1972: Intel introduces the 8008, the first 8-bit microprocessor.
Jonathan A. Titus designs the Mark-8, "Your Personal Minicomputer," according to the
July, 1974 cover of Radio-Electronics.
Popular Electronics features the MITS Altair 8800 on its cover, January 1975. It is hailed
as the first "personal" computer. Thousands of orders for the 8800 rescue MITS from
Pictured below: The Homebrew Computer Club in 1975.
Paul Allen and Bill Gates develop BASIC for the Altair 8800. Microsoft is born.
1977: Apple is selling its Apple II for $1,195, including 16K of RAM but no monitor.
Software Arts develops the first spreadsheet program, Visicalc, by the spring of 1979. It
is released in October and is an immediate success. Copies shipped per month rise from
500 to 12,000 between 1979 and 1981.
By 1980 Apple has captured 50% of the personal computer market.
In 1980 Microsoft is approached by IBM to develop BASIC for its personal computer
project. The IBM PC is released in August, 1981.
The Apple Macintosh debuts in 1984. It features a simple, graphical interface, uses the
8-MHz, 32-bit Motorola 68000 CPU, and has a built-in 9-inch B/W screen.
Microsoft Windows 1.0 ships in November, 1985.
Motorola announces the 68040, a 32-bit 25MHz microprocessor.
Microsoft\'s sales for 1989 reach $1 billion, the first year to do so.

Timesharing, the concept of linking a large numbers of users to a single computer
via remote terminals, is developed at MIT in the late 50s and early 60s.
1962: Paul Baran of RAND develops the idea of distributed, packet-switching networks.
ARPANET goes online in 1969.
Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf develop the basic ideas of the Internet in 1973.
In 1974 BBN opens the first public packet-switched network - Telenet.
A UUCP link between the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke
University establishes USENET in 1979. The first MUD is also developed in 1979, at