HOW TOOLS TRANSFORMED PROTOHUMANS




HOW TOOLS TRANSFORMED PROTO-HUMANS
INTO MODERN HUMANS


According to archeological and physical record, tool use has had an enormous effect in the transformation of proto humans into modern humans. What stimulated tool use was the proto humans intrest in new and easier ways to do things. With the introduction of tools, body morphology changed and reproductive fitness increased. Evolution did not happened over night. It took 4.5 million years for humans to get where they are today.
Scientists have concluded that about 3.5 million years ago, there was the first proto human. A proto human resembles extinct hominid populations that had some but not all the features of a modern homo sapien. Such features were prolonged moments of bipedality, change in the pelvis and the reduction of the sagittal crest. (Diamond 1992 pg 34) In order for this proto human to evolve into a human, it needed tools. Some of the tools might have been discovered by accident or by early creative geniuses? The way they discovered the tools is unknown, but the changes the tools made were to the physical morphology and the body behavior. They began to walk upright, gathered supplies, cut food, and used weapons.(Diamond 1992 pg. 40)
About 3 million years ago, after generations of learning how to use these tools, the hominid came out of the trees, and stayed mostly on the ground. The animal had an

abundance of food and water and lived in a population of; on the ground proto-human animals. Some adapted to ground life and started to become bipedal, but more than half of them stayed on all fours. The bipedal hominids vision increased, making it able to see and do more. It obtained the ability to use weapons more effectively and efficiently because it had arms with agility. It found all the good meat and valued resources then eventually took over the whole community. Soon after the bipedal creatures gained control the hominids on four legs die off, precisely because they could not evolve quickly enough and produce healthy, if any, offspring. The bipedal community grew into the hundreds and thousands. Tough, healthy, and agile hominids, the strong survived and the females produced healthy offspring which is called reproductive fitness. The mouth became smaller and the brain increased in size. More brains equaled better tools, which lead to a faster, more efficient evolution.(Diamond 1992 pg 12)
According to the bone and fossil evidence that I have learned, this is my interpretation how evolution might have happened. When a species develops tools, many things can a will change. The definition of a tool is, performing or facilitating mechanical operations.(Websters Ninth New Dictionary) Take for instance a hominid that walks on all four limbs. How easy would it be for a hominid, without agile arms, to mechanically operate a tool? It would be very difficult. This type of arboreal hominid, probably lives in a tree, swings from the branches, vision is not great, and is mostly a vegetarian. After the proto human began to walk on two feet there hands became free and moveable. Now give this hominid a sharp stick or a blunt object, practice as how to properly use it, and

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maybe arm agility. Then over time (about 3 to 2.5 mya) the animal becomes a hunter, being able to strike a predator, protect, and gain control over resources.
In the movie 2001 Space Odyssey,(Anthropology 100 9/5/97) Stanley Kubrick gives his interpretation on how we evolve. The movie shows groups of stem-primate type creatures who represent early proto-human communities. The creatures begin to explore their environment finding resources and developing new ways to do things. The communities battled other primate communities for the natural resources in their environment. One of the primates begins to break some objects with a bone it picked up. The primate then realizes that this bone can do major damage. When one community learns to use bones as weapons, then that group can take over the resources in a certain area and be selected for, which increases reproductive fitness. This scenario could have happened but the truth is nobody knows exactly how and why things turned out the way they did.
Not just hominids use tools. Wood-peckers, vultures and sea otters are among the other animal species that evolved