This essay Industrialization has a total of 474 words and 3 pages.
Industrialization in the 19th century made production easier, quicker and inexpensive for employers. I believe that industrialization allowed employers to abuse American and immigrant workers in many ways.
Workers were exposed to hazardous environments. Facilities lacked fire extinguishers. These facilities also locked emergency exits. An example of unsafe workplaces was the NYC Triangle Shirtwaist Company (1911). This factory caught a fire and killed 146 workers including men, women, and children. Many of them had been trapped inside the burning building because management had locked the emergency exits to prevent unauthorized absences. Most accidents were caused by machines. Employers failed to provide safety gear to protect workers from getting hurt. Workers were paid low wages with an annual income of approximately $500 a year. The average workday consisted of 10 to 12 hours with a six day work week. Employers did not provide any medical coverage. In the event an employee became ill and unable to work they were immediately terminated.
The Labor Contract Law permitted employers to recruit immigrant workers and pay for their passage in advance and deduct the amount later from their wages. This law made wages for unskilled immigrant workers lower than the wages for unskilled American citizens. Therefore immigrants would be making enough just to survive. As a result of the low wages, immigrant workers were replacing citizen workers.
Women and children were paid the lowest wages compared to men. Most women were assigned to work with unskilled machine labor, textile industries, and domestic services. While children worked performing field duties. The remaining jobs were done by men such as, farming and mining. Children were targeted employees in factory work since they were quick, and easier to manipulate.
Laborers attempted to fight back against harsh working conditions by creating national unions. The Molly Maguire’s were one of the first militant labor organizations in the 1870’s who used violence and murder in their battles with employers. The Molly Maguire’s battles were over workday hours, benefits, and working conditions. The Knights of Labor was the first labor organization that was genuinely open to all workers except lawyers, bankers, liquor dealers, and profit gamblers. The Knights of Labor fought for an 8 hour workday and the abolition of child labor. The Knights wanted to replace the wage system with a new cooperative system in which workers would themselves control a large part of the company. The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was another association who represented mainly skilled workers. The AFL main objectives were wages, work hours, and working conditions.
Despite the creation of labor organizations and unions, employers failed to accommodate workers needs . In the battle for power within the emerging industrial economy, almost all the advantages seemed to lie with employers and the government. Thus, only a few battles were won in the 19th century against these large cooperate organizations.
Topics Related to Industrialization
Industrial Workers of the World, Labour relations, Human migration, Trade union, Labor, American Federation of Labor, Foreign worker, Labor history of the United States, Labor federation competition in the United States
Essays Related to Industrialization
African Americans In The SouthAfrican Americans In The South As a social and economic institution, slavery originated in the times when humans began farming instead of hunting and gathering. Slave labor became commonplace in ancient Greece and Rome. Slaves were created through the capture of enemies, the birth of children to slave parents, and means of punishment. Enslaved Africans represented many different peoples, each with distinct cultures, religions, and languages. Most originated from the coast or the interior of West
American ImmigrationAmerican Immigration December 11, 2000 Immigration In the decades following the Civil War, the United States emerged as an industrial giant. Old industries expanded and many new ones, including petroleum refining, steel manufacturing, and electrical power, emerged. Railroads expanded significantly, bringing even remote parts of the country into a national market economy. America was the ideal place. In the late 1800s, people in many parts of the world decided to leave their homes and immigrate t
American Women During WWIIamerican Women During WWII American Women During World War II. America\'s entry into World War II posed opportunities for American women domestically, yet paradoxically heightened fears in the polity about the exact role that women should adopt during wartime. A central issue that dominated women\'s lives during this period was how to combine the private sphere of the home, with the new demands of the war economy in the public sphere. Women made significant gains in the military, the war economy
Antebellum Periods and ReformsAntebellum Periods and Reforms The Ante-bellum Period and The Reforms The overwhelming number of reforms in the ante-bellum period was a result the rapid change that was occurring around the country. These changes were seen in economics, politics and society. Americans reacted in a nationwide panic which created doubts of the goodness of the changes America was going through. The institution and then rise of the market economy and the Second Great Awakening had the greatest effect on America. Th
Entrepreneurial AdventureEntrepreneurial Adventure Entrepreneurial Adventure: The Development of Economics in The United States “Capitalism came in the first ships.” -Carl N. Degler Barit Brown United States History Saturday, March 18, 2000 4,753 words The United States was a nation of development. It was a nation of growth and of innovation. From the signing of the Declaration of Independence, to the end of World War II and so forth, complex dilemmas called for complex solutions and complex solutions called for innovat
FDRs Influence as presidentFDRs Influence as president Some have called him the best president yet. Others have even claimed that he was the world\'s most influential and successful leader of the twentieth century. Those claims can be backed up by the overwhelming support that he received from his citizens throughout his four terms in office. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt began a new era in American history by ending the Great Depression that the country had fallen into in 1929. His social reforms gave people a new
History of labor in americahistory of labor in america The Industrial Revolution was dawning in the United States. At Lowell, Massachusetts, the construction of a big cotton mill began in 1821. It was the first of several that would be built there in the next 10 years. The machinery to spin and weave cotton into cloth would be driven by water power. All that the factory owners needed was a dependable supply of labor to tend the machines. As most jobs in cotton factories required neither great strength nor special skills,
Muckrakersmuckrakers Muckraking was a powerful journalistic force, whose supporters made it become so. Muckraking was the practice of writers and critics exposing corrupt politicians and business practices. President Theodore Roosevelt made the term muck-raker popular. He once said The man with the muck-rake, the man who could look no way but downward with the muck-rake in his hands; who was offered a celestial crown for his muckrake, but who would neither look up nor regard the crown he was offered, bu
Outsiders locking inOutsiders locking in Outsiders Looking In In the United States something very odd happened during the period of time from the middle of the 1950\'s up to the impact of the crisis of the 1960\'s. For once in the storied history of the United States a majority of Americans accepted the same system of assumptions. This shared system of assumptions is known as the liberal consensus. The main reason there was such a thing as liberal consensus was because of the extreme economic growth we experienced
RooselveltRooselvelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the 32nd president of the United States. Roosevelt served longer than any other president. His unprecedented election to four terms in office will probably never be repeated; the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, passed after his death, denies the right of any person to be elected president more than twice. Roosevelt held office during two of the greatest crises ever faced by the United States: the Great De
The Roaring TwentiesThe Roaring Twenties THE ROARING TWENTIES Americans, in the years following the end of World War I found themselves in an era, where the people simply wished to detach themselves from the troubles of Europeans and the rest of the world. During the years of the Twenties, the economy was prosperous, there was widespread social reform, new aspects of culture were established, and people found better ways to improve their lifestyle and enjoy life. The 1920\'s exemplified the changing attitudes of Am
Total War World War OneTotal War World War One “World War I: Total War” Europe since pre-Roman times has been marked by conflict. Warring tribes often did battle in small skirmishes and hand-to-hand combat. But as the civilizations grew and technology improved the battles became larger and much more intense. With the Industrial revolution, warfare would change forever. This can be best seen in World War One. The “war to end all wars” gradually escalated to a global conflict, dragging the super powers into a four year
Unionismunionism Michael Paul 099 66 3949 History 316z Trade unionism, industrial unionism, and socialism were the main forms of organized labor in the late nineteenth century early twentieth century, yet rarely did these shifting currents flow in complementary ways that might appeal to the vast majority of struggling workers. The three most important formal organizations were the American Federation of Labor (AFL), the IndustrialWorkers of the World (IWW) and the Socialist Party of America. All three
Westward expansionin nineteenth centurywestward expansionin nineteenth century THE WESTWARD EXPANSION Introduction The Westward Expansion has often been regarded as the central theme of American history, down to the end of the19th century and as the main factor in the shaping of American history. As Frederick Jackson Turner says, the greatest force or influence in shaping American democracy and society had been that there was so much free land in America and this profoundly affected American society. Motives After the revolution, the
Ethnography of the cityethnography of the city Ethnography in the City: Phillipe Bourgois and the Barrio Cities exist for many reasons and the diversity of urban form and function can be traced to the complex roles that cities perform. Cities serve as centers of storage, commerce, and industry. The agricultural surplus from the surrounding country hinterland is processed and distributed within the city. Urban areas have also developed around marketplaces, where imported goods from distant places could be exchanged for
Ayasofyaayasofya Architecture, the practice of building design and its resulting products; customary usage refers only to those designs and structures that are culturally significant. Architecture is to building as literature is to the printed word. Vitruvius, a 1st-century BC Roman, wrote encyclopedically about architecture, and the English poet Sir Henry Wotton was quoting him in his charmingly phrased dictum: Well building hath three conditions: Commoditie, Firmenes, and Delight. More prosaically,
The Bauhaus NotesThe Bauhaus Notes Architecturearchitecture When Walter Gropius resigned as the head of the Bauhaus in 1930, Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe (1886-1969) became its director, moving it to Berlin before political pressures forced it to close in 1933. In his architecture and furniture he made a clear and elegant statement of the International Style, so much so that his work had enormous influence on modern architecture. Taking his motto less is more and calling his architecture skin and bones, his aest
The world has known many great leaders, especiallyFDR The world has known many great leaders, especially in the post-Civil War era. Winston Churchill, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Harry Truman all rank with the most prominent leaders of all time. However, in my opinion President Franklin Roosevelt made the most difference out of anybody in this century. He began a new era in American history by ending the Great Depression that the country had succumbed to in 1929. Without him ending the Depression, who knows where this country could have gone?
FDRs influence as presidentFDRs influence as president Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s Influence as president Some have called him the best president yet. Others have even claimed that he was the world\'s most influential and successful leader of the twentieth century. Those claims can be backed up by the overwhelming support that he received from his citizens throughout his four terms in office. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt began a new era in American history by ending the Great Depression that the country had fallen
The Life of Mao ZedongThe Life of Mao Zedong The Life of Mao Zedong Dressed in the drab military uniform that symbolized the revolutionary government of Communist China, Mao Zedong\'s body still looked powerful, like an giant rock in a gushing river. An enormous red flag draped his coffin, like a red sail unfurled on a Chinese junk, illustrating the dualism of traditional China and the present Communist China that typified Mao. 1 A river of people flowed past while he lay in state during the second week of September
All Quiet On the Western Front ReportAll Quiet On the Western Front Report BARRON\'S BOOK NOTES ERICH MARIA REMARQUE\'S ALL QUIET ON THE WESTERN FRONT ^^^^^^^^^^ERICH MARIA REMARQUE: THE AUTHOR AND HIS TIMES Born Erich Paul Remark on June 22, 1898, he grew up in a Roman Catholic family in Osnabruck in the province of Westphalia, Germany--a city in the northwest part of what is now West Germany. He adored his mother, Anna Maria, but was never close to his father, Peter. The First World War effectively shut him off from his sisters,
Analysis of Looking Backward 20001887Analysis of Looking Backward 20001887 Edward Bellamy\'s Looking Backward: 2000-1887 was an attempt to show Americans who desired the utopian sense of community what it could truly be. Looking Backward addressed the yearnings of a society stricken by economic panics and social collapse by proposing an Eden-like community in which war, hunger, greed and malice were eradicated from society. While the story followed the wonderment of Julian West as he awoke in a Boston of 2000 AD after 113 years of
One flew over cuckoos nestone flew over cuckoos nest One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest By Ken Kesey 1. How would you describe your main character? Become his “voice” and write about who he believes they are. I might frighten some of you at first, and others may think of me as some crazy man who has no business living in a normal society. Well, if you thought any of those, you’re wrong. I, Randle McMurphy, might have gotten in four or five fights and have been in jail and the work farm for sometime, but I feel that it is ne
The Communist ManifestoThe Communist Manifesto The Communist Manifesto By Karl Marx Also words By Friedrich Engles and A JP Taylor Volumes and volumes could be written about communism, but in fact, the actual Communist Manifesto is a mere forty pages. Karl Marx, the principal former of communism as we know it now, later wrote many books fulfilling the outline or skeleton of communism, which is the Communist Manifesto. Communism cannot be summed up in one sentence, but it can be summed up in ten main ideas, sort of lik
The Jungle3The Jungle3 The Jungle By Upton Sinclair The Jungle portrays the lower ranks of the industrialworld as the scene of a naked struggle for survival. Where workers not only are forced to compete with each other but, if they falter, are hard pressed to keep starvation from their door and a roof over their heads. With unions weak and cheap labor plentiful, a social Darwinist state of the survival of the fittest exists. The real story revolves around the integration and eventual disintegration of
Problems In Chinas Economy Problems In Chinas Economy Problems In China¡¯s Economy And Their Solutions Today, at the turn of the century, the People¡¯s Republic of China who has a history of over 5000 years is facing a very important choice. After the revolution of 1949,new China has devoted himself to improving his peoples¡¯ living condition, and developing the economy. Although we encountered some difficulties on the way of development, we still make a rapid progress in many fields, such as, we have already solve the p
Banking on DiversityBanking on Diversity Organizational Environment Uncertainty Acme is made up of five key departments, they include: purchasing, drafting, productions, industrial engineering and mechanical engineering. Omega, on the other hand, is made up of four key departments: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, industrial engineering and drafting. Both are similar. These departments play an instrumental role in the success of both companies. It is evident that Acme operates under a mechanistic str
Big Oil and Bus EthicsBig Oil and Bus Ethics Big Oil in the Arctic It can be argued (convincingly) that humans usage of fossil fuels is responsible for a large part of the worlds pollution problems. The area that I will discuss is the interaction that the big oil companies have had with the environment surrounding their businesses in Alaska. I will not tackle the issue of whether it is right or wrong to extract or use fossil fuels. Instead, I will ignore the larger issue and concentrate on specific issues concernin
Canningtoncannington Cannington Remuneration Policy Investigation. The organisation studied for the purpose of this investigation is Broken Hill Proprietary / Limited (B.H.P.). B.H.P. is Australia’s largest company and was ranked 125th on the fortune global 500 list of the worlds largest industrial companies in 1993. The company was incorporated in 1885 and began mining silver , lead and zinc at Broken Hill in NSW Cannington is BHP’s latest mine which is still yet to officially open, the mine was a Greenf
Changing Job RolesChanging Job Roles Introduction This paper is the result of research into and reflection on the roles carried out by those who are responsible for managing the \'people\' function within organisations. Whether these incumbents are called personnel or HR managers is not necessarily important; it is however critical to give recognition to the complexity of the task that faces those who have to take responsibility for this function. This paper raises two inter-related issues. First, in what sorts o
Collective Bargaining in the WorkplaceCollective Bargaining in the Workplace Britain has one of the most developed systems of collective bargaining in the world, especially amongst manual workers. Its sophistication is one of the main reasons why British workers traditionally pressed less for the statutory provision of basic rights in the work place than their Continental colleagues. Most trade unionists prefer to put a grievance ‘through procedure\' rather than go to an industrial tribunal. Dubin has described collective bargaining
EntrepreneurshipEntrepreneurship \'A Balanced Economic State\' Two main economic systems have been developed since the Industrial Revolution, these are Capitalism and Socialism. Both systems have advantages and disadvantages, this essay will explain these, and also give my proposals for a mixed system for the whole society of the United Kingdom. Capitalism Capitalism generally started as an economic system in the United Kingdom at the time of the Industrial Revolution. The basic explanation of Capitalism would
Fed and Monetary policyFed and Monetary policy Justin McVay Period 4 Macroeconomics Term Paper FEDERAL RESERVE AND MONETARY POLICY Monetary policy affects the economic and financial decisions of virtually all of us from workers to borrowers to investors (Rukeyser 105). Louis Rukeyser wrote, If we want monetary policy to play its proper role in a true national economic reconstruction, the authentic task is to get the Fed to stop bouncing like a Chinese Ping-Pong ball, switching every few months between the inflationar
McDonaldsMcDonalds INTRODUCTION: McDonald\'s Corporation is the world\'s leading food service organization. The corporation started out as a small drive-through in 1948 by two brothers, Dick and Mac McDonald. Raymond Albert Kroc, a salesman, saw a great opportunity in this market and advised Dick and Mac to expand their operation and open new restaurants. In 1961 Kroc bought out the McDonald brothers. By 1967 McDonalds expanded its operations to countries outside the U.S.A. This unyielding expansion led
NAFTA1NAFTA1 North American Free Trade Agreement In December of 1992, President Salinas of the Government of the United Mexican States, President Bush of the Government of the United States of America, and Prime Minister Brian Mulroney of the Government of Canada signed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA); however, it was not ratified and fully effective until 1 January 1994. NAFTA, which established a free trade area among the aforementioned nations, consistent with the previously institu
Recruitmentrecruitment On dealing with the premiss that the practice of recruitment and selection is a long way from the recommendations of personnel textbooks, distinction must be taken into account between explicit recommendations and guidelines, on one hand, and, on the other, implicit suggestions stemming from the author’s own stance. The implications of distancing from, or identification with, such explicit recommendations and implicit suggestions will be viewed in this paper as well as forms of overt
Retailing in the internetretailing in the internet INDUSTRY IN GERMANY Country Issues Country issues related to Germany are addressed in four contexts. The areas of consideration are (1) cultural, social, and demographic trends and concerns, (2) political/governmental concerns, (3) exchange rate issues, and (4) macroeconomic issues. Cultural, Social, and Demographic Trends and Concerns Germany is the slightly larger then the combined size of Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. (137,691 square miles.) Germany is a nation o
SabreSabre Sabre is a complex company that is difficult to fit into a specific industry. Although they were once a division of American Airlines, and remain closely tied to the airline industry, they are not direct competitors of other airline companies. Sabre has several business lines, therefore determining true competitors change with each business unit. Because the core competency is its computer reservation system, the competitive focus will be on other computer reservation system\'s companies.
Shrinking buying power of the middle classShrinking buying power of the middle class The Shrinking Buying Power of the Middle Class According to the Merriam-Webster’s Online Dictionary, the middle class is “a class occupying a position between the upper class and the lower class; especially: a fluid heterogeneous socioeconomic grouping composed principally of business and professional people, bureaucrats, and some farmers and skilled workers sharing common social characteristics and values (Merriam-Webster). In the United States, their
Teams Making Them Work For YouTeams Making Them Work For You The organisational organ known as the team is becoming more and more apparent in today\'s dynamic business world. Increasingly managers are searching for a means to improve production and keep their organisation competitive in the global market. A lot of these managers have turned to the team as a means for achieving this improvement. Quality circles were looked at to fulfil this role. However, this form of team is being phased out and may have posed as incubator f
Zero InflationZero Inflation Introduction Hyper inflation has plagued most of the world’s developing countries over the past decades. Countries in the industrialised world, too, have at times duelled with dangerously high inflation rates in the post WWII era. With varying degrees of success, all have employed great efforts to bring their inflation rates within acceptable limits. Generally, a moderate rate of inflation has been the ultimate goal. More recently, however, a few countries have pursued policies th
The Battle in SeattleThe Battle in Seattle The last time the World Trade Organization had a major meeting, it was in Singapore, and now we know why. Singapore, of course, is the city-state that accords near-perfect freedom to banks and corporations while jailing political activists and caning messy tenants and people who chew gum in public. When WTO ministers gathered in Singapore in 1997, their business was unimpeded by any outside agitators. (Or, for that matter, any internal dissidents: Advocates for worker right
1990s 1880s economy1990s 1880s economy As one can see there are many striking parallels between the Gilded Age or the era from the eighteen eighties to the eighteen nineties compared to the Silicon Age of the nineteen eighties to the nineteen nineties. The preconditions for these two massive economic booms share similar birth paths laid in laissez faire policy, no regulation or deregulation and innovative booms. Before the 1880\'s there was no real conflict between the welfare of the American people and that of it
A civil ActionA civil Action A Civil Action The movie A Civil Action brings up an interesting idea that many people in the public don\'t see or hear about very often. The idea that the big corporations often don\'t take into account the safety of the people that work for them or the people that live around the factories. These big corporations are run entirely by money and the idea of what things will cost and how much money they can possibly make. Too many times money is more important than the lives of huma
A civil actona civil acton A Civil Action The movie A Civil Action brings up an interesting idea that many people in the public don\'t see or hear about very often. The idea that the big corporations often don\'t take into account the safety of the people that work for them or the people that live around the factories. These big corporations are run entirely by money and the idea of what things will cost and how much money they can possibly make. Too many times money is more important than the lives of human
Chinas EconomicsChinas Economics Introduction For various reasons, China has always been an important country in the world. With its increasing large population, it was determined by other countries that is has a lot of economic potentials. In just one decade and a half, China has transformed itself from a giant that use to live in poverty into a wealthy powerhouse to the world economy. With one-fifth of the world¡¦s population, China is now producing 4% of world merchandise and a proportion of global productio
Chinas Growing EconomyChinas Growing Economy After North America, Europe, and Japan, the area of China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong is a fourth growth pole in the world economy (Jue 108) which in 1994 was expected to double in size by 2002. Today, the growth rate is still on track to fulfill that prediction. Recent Chinese economic policies have shot the country into the world economy at full speed. As testimony of this, China’s gross domestic product has risen to seventh in the world, and its economy is growing at over
CHINESE ECONOMIC REFORMCHINESE ECONOMIC REFORM Chinese Economic Reform Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, which had had as their base ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems
Chinese Economic RefromChinese Economic Refrom Chinese Economic Reform Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution which had had as their bases ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems
Chinese reformchinese reform Chinese Economic Reform Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution which had had as their bases ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems produced