International Terrorism



INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM By John Freel.

This was a very difficult project for me to carry out, coming from an area were racial discrimination is almost non existent were only sometimes does religious bigotry raise it\'s ugly head, but not nearly in the proportions of this project.

KU KLUX KLAN.

Ku Klux Klan, is a secret terrorist organisation that originated in the southern states during the period of Reconstruction following the American Civil War and was reactivated on a wider geographic basis in the 20th century. The original Klan was organised in Pulaski, Tennessee, on December 24, 1865, by six former Confederate army officers who gave their society a name taken from the Greek word kuklos, which means circle. Although the Ku Klux Klan began as a prankish social organisation, its activities soon were directed against the Republican Reconstruction governments and their leaders, both black and white, which came into power in the southern states in 1867.
ORIGINAL TARGETS AND TACTICS.
The Klan regarded the government at the time as being hostile and oppressive. They also generally believed that the black people were inferior and therefore they mistrusted the rise to civil equality and sometimes to the position of political power, so the Klan became an illegal organisation who were committed to the destruction of the new government from the Carolinas to Arkansas.

Dressed in robes or white sheets and wearing a mask which came to a point, the Klan terrorised officials to try and scare them from office and any black person to intimidate them into not voting or holding any type of civil position or using any of their newly acquired political rights. It would be a usual sight to see a Klansman burning a wooden cross on hills or near to the home of someone that they were trying to intimidate or were just trying to frighten. When this type of intimidation failed their victims might be flogged, mutilated or murdered. The Klan believed these measures to be justified as necessary in the defence of white supremacy and the sanctity of woman.

A secret convention of the Klan held in Tennessee, in 1867, adopted a declaration of principles expressing loyalty to the United States Constitution and its government and declaring the determination of the Klan to protect the weak, the innocent and the defenceless; to relieve the injured and oppressed; [and] to succour the suffering The convention designated the Klan as an Invisible Empire and provided for a supreme official, called Grand Wizard of the Empire, who wielded virtually autocratic power and who was assisted by ten Genii. Other principal officials of the Klan were the Grand Dragon of the Realm, who was assisted by eight Hydras; the Grand Titan of the Dominion, assisted by six Furies; and the Grand Cyclops of the Den, assisted by two Nighthawks. In 1868 until the end of 1870 whilst the occupational troops were being withdrawn from the southern states and the extremist regimes replaced with Democratic administrations, the rougher sections of the population were now ruling the Klan. The local organisations, called Klaverns became so violent and uncontrollable that the Grand Wizard, who was then the former Ex-confederate officer General Nathan B Forrest, officially disbanded Klan in 1869.

Klaverns however continued to operate on their own. In 1871 congress passed the bill to implement the 14th amendment to the Constitution that guaranteed the rights of all citizens. In the same year President U.S.Grant issued a proclamation calling on members of the Klan and any other illegal secret organisation to disarm and disband, not soon after hundreds of Klansmen were arrested under this new law. The remaining Klaverns gradually faded as the political and social acceptance of blacks were being socially accepted.

The name, rituals, and some of the attitudes of the original Klan were adopted by a new fraternal organisation incorporated in Georgia in 1915. The official name of the new society, which was organised by a former preacher, Colonel William Simmons, was Invisible Empire, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Membership was open to native-born, white, Protestant males, 16 years of age or older; blacks, Roman Catholics, and Jews were excluded and were increasingly made targets of defamation and persecution by the Klan. Until 1920 the society exercised little influence. Then, in the period of economic dislocation and political