Job Design and Staffing

The Analysis of Jobs
A focus on jobs as important elements in organizational structures and information systems may help with investigation and evaluation of work and work experience. These notes/checklists are offered to aid examination of your own job from a self-development point of view. They may also help

· In projects that generally involve the design of jobs for an organization.
· Those involved in staff recruitment, training, employee appraisal and reward system management
· Budding human resource specialists and team leader/managers.
· Business studies and others involved in a work placement or research activity into job structures and relationships.
What is the Content of a Job Definition?
If you need to analyze a job (your own) and report on a job (write a job description) then the following questions/headings should help.
· What is the Job Title?
· What is the Grade within the company (indicates level/position within the rewards structure)
· How permanent is the job?
· What traveling is involved with the job?
· What are the formal reporting relationships associated with it? (horizontal, vertical, and diagonal relationships)
· Reports to whom in the hierarchy? (formally - boss and key others)
· Responsible for whom? (number of full-time and part-time staff and their job titles)
· Who are the others in the formal job network/role set: (list those contacts/other jobs - internal and external - that form the job\'s network of contacts.)
· External (customer groups, agencies, suppliers etc.)
· Internal (other departments which are internal clients or that must work with the post holder)
· What are the main responsibilities (routine/non-routine) of the job?
· Routine (daily, weekly)
· Yearly - and responsibilities that arise from time to time
· Other key events/points in job cycle
· Now focus on the really important (the key) tasks and critical success indicators of job performance for each of these areas of responsibility
· For each area of responsibility LIST the key tasks that have to be carried out
· Describe the indicators that would show that the key results/critical success standards have been achieved (i.e., that performance requirements have been met)
· With what supervision and support processes are you involved? (e.g., your boss to you, you to your boss, you to your staff, your staff to you, you to others, others to you)

· What authority do you have over staff and resources? (to give instructions, allocate work, make rewards available, fix/change terms and conditions of employment, give feedback, assess and appraise and discipline).
· What responsibility do you have for assets, the fabric of the workplace, budgets? Describe each of these and give details of what, how much.
The Value of Job Analysis Techniques
Jobs are organizational components. Many organizational studies involve looking at job structures, relationships and behaviors associated with jobs. Job analysis techniques are useful for the examination of work experience. Job roles can be defined in terms of:
· Responsibilities
· Accountability
· Communications networks
· Decision-making
· Relationships to operational and information systems in use
· Hierarchical and team positions within business systems and programs
· The learning and developmental opportunities they offer
· Expectations, conflicts, ambiguities and tensions manifested
· Relationships with policies, business imperatives and changes
· Contributions to work systems and information systems
Job Analysis in a Work Experience Project
When taking a work placement test, it is useful to focus on a specific job and study its structure, methods, processes, required abilities and behaviors, and its relationships with other structures.
One need to also look at its place in a network of jobs, both external and internal, in terms of policies and procedures, departmental plans and programs, its cultural milieu, and management approach. With the job at the center, the analysis of work experience can fan out to explore these structures and how they interact (the behaviors and processes in the work place).
Job Analysis as data gathering
Jobs are experienced and often taken for granted. A job holder’s account of a job is valuable data, but the subjectivity of such an explanation must be understood and evaluated using more objective frameworks. Accurate, meaningful, verifiable data is required. We need to define
· The role or tasks, which should not be artificially distorted by analysis.
· The dynamic properties of jobs can be missed when decomposing jobs or task into detailed sub-tasks or elements. One can lose sight of the overall picture essential to job performance.
· The subjective/personal aspects (feelings, perceptions, loyalties) of jobs are important but need