literature review


Gender segragation is always a major problem for Middle Eastern countries.

Things have changed a lot for Turkish women in the 20th century. After the reforms of

Atatürk, women had more rights than they had. These articles talk about the Turkish

women and change in the early 20th century. There are four issues that are discussed in

detail. First one is education. Second issue is legal reforms. Third issue is that whether

the rights given to women are fought for or given by the government. And finally, last

issue is that whether the rights were enjoyed equally by the entire female population or


First issue is education which is an important institution for a country to

develop. Atatürk gave great importance to education. Zehra Arat states that "Kemalist

reforms were not aimed at liberating women or at promoting the development of female

identity" ( 58). She thinks that Ataürk gave importance to women\'s education to make

them better wives and mothers. What she differs from other writers is that she critices

Ataürk harshly. But she doesn\'t talk about Ataürk\'s adopted child Sabiha Gökçen who

was a pilot. If Atatürk was giving importance to education of women just because to

make them better wives and mothers, why would he let her own child to be a pilot? We

all can see that a women pilot can\'t be a very good mother. I think Zehra Arat should

have talked about that. Zehra Arat shows us that there were differences between the

curriculums of boys and girls. Girls were taught sewing, child care and courses like that

while boys were taught handiwork. She also states that "female students were carefuly

examined by their teachers" (71). These are very important points because we still see

that today in our schools, girls are more carefully controlled in some senses.

Second issue is legal reforms. Nermin Abadan-Unat states that "Atatürk

used legal reforms as a revolutionary tool to eliminate the traditional Islamic norms and

jurisprudence" (188). She also thinks that this is a kind of state feminism. Zehra Arat

critices Swiss code for "failing to establish full equality between the sexes" (63).

Zehra Arat states that "in addition to the civil code, unequal treatments of sexes can also

be found in the criminal and labor laws" (65). Kumari Jayawardena also talks about the

Swiss code, but she doesn\'t mention the missing points of the code like other writers do.

Cem Behar and Alan Duben state that "The Republican Code of 1926, a revolutionary

document from an Islamic ponit of view, gives the legal sanction of the modernists to the

traditional gender division of labor" (221).

Third issue is that whether the rights given to women were fought for or given

by the government. Nermin Abadan-Unat states that "the principal progressive changes

were not fought for but were given by the government in order to prove that, in granting

equal rights to women, the new Turkey was reaching a level of contemporary civilization

and was a symbol to the world" (Jayawardena 41). Nermin Abadan Ünat concludes that

"the major rights conferred on Turkish women were much more the result of unrelenting

efforts of a small evolutionary elite, rather than the product of large-scale demands by

Turkey\'s entire female population" (Abadan Unat 1981:12-13). In this point, Fatmagül

Berktay thinks that "although the changes were initiated by a modernizing male elite, and

although a significant women\'s movement was absent in the period, to say that the

initiative was entirely out of the hands of women underestimates the struggle women

waged for emancipation from the Tanzimat onward" (108).

Fourth issue is that whether the rights were equally enjoyed by the entire

female population or not. All writers here accept that the rights were not equally