Ludwig Van Beethoven








BEETHOVEN 1770-1827

Life of Beethoven
I. Education in general and in music
Beethoven came from a musical family, and his early musical training was under his father\'s guidance. His father taught him piano and violin. His general education was not continued beyond the elementary school. He was practically illiterate in math.
II. Self assertion
As a youth of 19, in 1789, Beethoven took legal steps to have himself placed at the head of his family. He petitioned for half his father\'s salary to support his brothers. This act of self-assertion is an indication of his character.
III. Studies with Haydn
A. The first contact
On one of Haydn\'s trips to London, he met the young Beethoven. Beethoven showed Haydn a cantata and he received Haydn\'s commendation. The Elector of Bonn paid for Beethoven\'s lessons and expences in to study with Haydn in Vienna.
B. The studies
Beethoven arrived in Vienna in 1792 and studied with Haydn for about one year. The arrangement proved to be a dissappointment to Beethoven.
C. The relationship
Outwardly in public the two were cordial, but there were troubles with the relationship--maybe professional jealousy caused the problems.
D. Other teachers
Beethoven turned to other teachers when Haydn went to London for the second time. He studied with Albrechtsberger, famous as a choir director at St. Stephens in Vienna and the best-known counterpoint teacher in Vienna. He then studied Salieri, famous in Mozart\'s biography. Salieri helped Beethoven in setting Italian words to music.
IV. Establishment as pianist and composer
His first task in Vienna was to establish himself as pianist and composer. He achieved both rapidly.
A. Aristocracy
He had worked for a court in Bonn so his first contacts were in aristocratic circles. He needed financial support from them.
B. Public concerts
Public concerts were not yet the way of life in Vienna, but Beethoven did begin a series of charity concerts. Later in 1800 he gave his first concert for his own benefit.
C. Opus 1
His opus 1, Trios for Piano Violin and Cello, were designed to impress Viennese society. Each trio is in 4 movements. Beethoven created parity among the instruments in these trios.
V. Brothers and Nephew
A. Fighting with brothers
All three brothers lived in Vienna and they often "came to blows" in the street.
B. Fighting for nephew
After his brother Carl died in 1815 Beethoven felt responsible for his nephew Karl. He had little difficulty in persuading himself that his sister-in-law was unfit to care for Karl. He went to court requesting guardianship (he won).
VI. Deafness
A. The secret
It is not known for sure when he began to go deaf, but he kept the fact a secret until 1801 when he wrote a Bonn friend about his "miserably life".
B. Heiligenstadt Testament
Having moved out of the city for medical reasons he wrote the Heiligenstadt Testament.
C. Total deafness
He was totally deaf by 1818. He continued to compose until the year of his death in 1827.

Works of Beethoven

· 9 SYMPHONIES
· 1 OPERA "Fidelio"
· 32 PIANO SONATAS
· 5 PIANO CONCERTOS
· 16 STRING QUARTETS
· 16 SONATAS FOR ONE INSTRUMENT AND PIANO (CELLO,5; VIOLIN,10; FH,1)
The Symphonies
· op.21 Symphony No. 1 in C 1800
· op.36 Symphony No. 2 in D 1801-02
· op.55 Symphony No. 3 in E flat "Erocia" 1803
· op.60 Symphony No. 4 in B flat 1806
· op.67 Symphony No. 5 in c minor 1807
· op.68 Symphony No. 6 in F "Pastoral" 1808
· op.92 Symphony No. 7 in A 1811
· op.93 Symphony No. 8 in F 1812
· op.125 Symphony No. 9 in d minor 1822








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