Mexico



Mexico is our neighbor to the south. The United States was once part of Mexico. The country is a place for tourism and vacations for us. For the Mexicans, it’s home. They live different lives then us.
Near the year 7000 B.C., Indians learned to grow plants for food. In time they were able to settle in villages. Those villages grew into towns. During the years 250 to 900 A.D. , the Indians lived in the “Classic Period” in Mexican history. During the time, the Mayas built huge pyramids and temples. They developed Mathematics and studied astronomy. The Zapotecas flattened a mountain top and built a temple. They also wrote the first written records in the region.
The Aztecs built the greatest civilization in the years 1400. They had a capital named Tenochtitlan. Tenochtitlan is now Mexico City. The Aztecs had a powerful emperor named Montezuma II.
In February 1519, a Spaniard named Hernando Cortes founded the city Veracruz for Spain. He then marched towards Tenochtitlan and seized Montezuma. The Aztecs revolted and forced the Spaniards out of Tenochtitlan. Two years later, Cortes returned to the city and conquered Tenochtitlan. Cuauhtemoc, the last Aztec emperor, was tortured. He is now a Mexican hero. Spain now owned Mexico.
For less then 300 years Mexico was a Spanish colony. That is why the language of Mexico is Spanish. The Indians were forced to accept the Roman Catholic religion. They Indians mixed the Roman Catholic religion with their own religion.
In 1810, a man named Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla , a priest, started a fight for the independence of Mexico. He had many Indians and Mestizos who fought against Spain for him. The Spanish king taxed the people of Mexico for their revolt. Most of the people did not want independence. The Mexicans later won their independence when there were more Mexican fighters then Spanish. In 1821, Mexico became independent. In 1824, Mexico became a republic.
In the year 1846-1848, Mexico had a war with The United States. The Americans fought the war because they wanted Mexican land. The Americans won the war and took control of States like California and Texas.
In 1917, Mexico adopted a Constitution. In the years 1942-1945 Mexico entered World War II for the Allied Powers. In 1953, women won the right to vote. In 1968, the Summer Olympics were in Mexico City. In 1985, an earthquake in Mexico City killed thousands of Mexicans.

One of the most famous Mexican writers was Octavio Paz. He was a poet. In 1990 he became the first Mexican to win a Nobel Prize in literature. He also wrote many political essays about Mexico. Many of his works have been translated into English and are popular among many people. His most famous piece of writing was “El Larerinto De La Soledad”.
A famous Mexican painter was Diego Rivera. He is well known for the murals he painted in Mexico City. His murals were related to Mexican History. He also did murals in the United States, which were about the life of an American. Other painters who painted murals in Mexico were Jose Orozco and David Siqueiros.
The Architecture in Mexico City is very artistic because it is full of murals and old ancient ruins. The city is a work of art to many people. It is one of the Art Capitals of the world.
Mexican music is very unique. Some instruments used in Mexican music are flutes, marimbas, and guitars. The music is called “Folk Dance”. “La Bamba” is a folk dance song, which was made into a rock song by Richie Valens. Many songs of folk dance are performed in the streets of Mexico City and other places. Songs of folk dance are played fast. The dances are very fast too.

The most popular sport in Mexico is Soccer. Mexico has a World Cup soccer team that did very good at the 1998 World Cup in France. Jorge Campos is the most popular Mexican player in Mexico. He is the goalie for the World Cup team. He is one of the best goalies in the world. Another popular sport is baseball. Every year there is 1 American Major League baseball game played in Mexico City. Many people go to this game. Mexico might have a Major League Baseball team in Mexico