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Fascism is a form of counter-revolutionary politics that first arose in the early part of the twentieth-century in Europe. It was a response to the rapid social upheaval, the devastation of World War I, and the Bolshevik Revolution. Fascism is a philosophy or a system of government the advocates or exercises a dictatorship of the extreme right, typically through the merging of state and business leadership, together with an ideology of aggressive nationalism. Celebrating the nation or the race as an organic community surpassing all other loyalties. This right-wing philosophy will even advocate violent action to maintain this loyalty which is held in such high regards. Fascism approaches politics in two central areas, populist and elitist. Populist in that it seeks to activate "the people" as a whole against perceived oppressors or enemies and to create a nation of unity. The elitist approach treats as putting the people\'s will on one select group, or most often one supreme leader called El Duce, from whom all power proceeds downward. The two most recognized names that go along with Fascism is Italy\'s Benito Mussolini and Germany\'s Adolf Hitler.
The philosophy of Fascism can be traced to the philosophers who argue that the will is prior to and superior to the intellect or reason. George Sorel, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Georg Hegal are main philosophers who\'s beliefs and ideologies greatly influenced the shaping of Fascist theory. Sorel (1847-1922) was a French social philosopher who had a major influence on Mussolini. Sorel believed that societies naturally became decadent and disorganized. The leadership of idealists who were willing to use violence to obtain power could only slow this decay. Nietzsche (1844-1900) theorized that there were two moral codes: the ruling class (master morality) and the oppressed class (slave morality). Nietzsche believed the ancient empires were developed from the master majority and the religious ideas and views grew out the slave majority. The idea of the "overman" or superman, which symbolized man at his most creative and Nietzsche, brought about highest intellectual capacity as well. Hegel believed people should sacrifice for the community. He thought war was also necessary to unify the state, with peace bring nothing but a weak society. Hegel also sustained that laws should be made by the corporate organization of the state.
Fascism values human nature in a group for the benefit of the community. The group as a whole is called the human will, which is ruled by a select group or one leader, with the power being passed down from top to bottom. Fascism seeks to organize an organization led mass movement in an effort to capture the state power. When the power is in the firm grip of the ruler, or IL Duce, the government will be used to control the population and everything in it so the community will be
Fascism\'s ideal government would be fashioned around the good of the
community or nation. Everyone would work for the benefit of the nation and that is all. Regularly this would take place with the merging of the state and business leadership, with concern only of the nation. In this the nation will also take care of its members if the need should arise. This could be money, shelter, food, or any other need that might come about.
The ideology of Fascism has been identified with totalitarianism, state terror, fanaticism, arranged violence, and blind obedience. Adolf Hitler established his own personal ideology, Mien Kampf, which means “My Struggle.” The book was written while Hitler was in prison and not yet in power. Mussolini fashioned his ideology after he took control of Italy. Despite their two different angles on the use of Fascism Hitler and Mussolini both worked similarly on how they established their
principles in the same basic manner. Their principles came from basic responses to various issues the leaders faced.
Fascism is an authoritarian political movement that developed in Italy and other European countries after 1919 as a reaction against the profound political and social changes brought about from inflation, and declining social, economic, and political conditions. Italy, which was ready for a new political aspect, was the birthplace of fascist ideology. Benito Mussolini was the man who brought this ideology to Italy. Mussolini had been looking for the perfect opportunity to take
complete control of the country and
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Fascism, Far-right politics, Nationalism, Italian fascism, Political ideologies, Fascism and ideology, Benito Mussolini, Neo-fascism, Adolf Hitler, Fhrer, Mein Kampf, Nazism
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