Nuclear Arms1





NUCLEAR ARMS

Minh Le
Mr. Ludeke
Chemistry
April 17, 2000

OUTLINE TITLE
Introduction:
I. The first sub-topic
A. First supporting information for the sub-topic
1. Detail of the information
2. Detail of the information
B. Second supporting information for the sub-topic
1. Detail of the information
2. Detail of the information
II. The second sub-topic
A. First supporting information for the sub-topic
1. Detail of the information
2. Detail of the information
B. Second supporting information for the sub-topic
1. Detail of the information
2. Detail of the information
III. The third sub-topic
A. First supporting information for the sub-topic
1. Detail of the information
2. Detail of the information
B. Second supporting information for the sub-topic
1. Detail of the information
2. Detail of the information
Conclusion:
Minh Le
Mr. Ludeke
Chemistry
April 18, 2000
Nuclear Arms

Nuclear arms are weapons of mass destruction powered by atomic processes. Using nuclear fission or fusion, they produce huge explosions and hazardous radioactive by-products. Most are meant to be delivered by artillery, plane, ship, or ballistic missile (ICBM), but some have been miniaturized. Tactical nuclear weapons can have the power of a fraction of a kiloton of TNT; strategic weapons can produce thousands of kilotons of force. An atomic bomb is weapon deriving its great explosive force from the sudden release through the fission, or splitting, of heavy atomic nuclei. The first atomic bomb was successfully tested by the U.S. near Alamogordo, New Mexico, on July 16, 1945(also known as “The Manhattan Project”) . During the final stages of World War II the United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima on Aug. 6, 1945, and on Nagasaki three days later to force Japan to surrender. Atomic bombs were subsequently developed by the USSR (1949), Great Britain (1952), France (1960), China (1964), and India (1974), and a number of other nations, particularly Pakistan and Israel, are believed to have atomic bombs or the capability to produce them readily.
The blast of nuclear explosions is produced by heating of air by the fireball. The enormous amount of energy released in a small volume of air produces intensely hot gases at extremely high pressures. The results is a shock wave that continues outward from the explosion. Blast effects depend mostly on the overpressure, which is usually measured in pounds per square inch (psi). As shown in figure A-1.
A-1


Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for all research and development of non-nuclear components of U.S. nuclear weapons. With branches near Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories, Sandia has helped to design every nuclear weapon in the U.S. arsenal. In the distance is Manzano Mountain, a nuclear weapons storage facility used by the Department of Defense to store Army and Air Force nuclear weapons since 1949. Sandia also operates the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada and a missile launching facility in Kauai, Hawaii. Figure A-2 (below) is an overall view of the facility. A-2
Strategic forces remain a critical element of the U.S. policy of deterrence. Although the forces have been reduced in the aftermath of the Cold War, and the percentage of the defense budget devoted to them has declined, strategic forces continue to provide a credible deterrent. Consequently, the United States will protect options to maintain its strategic capabilities at START I levels until the START II treaty has entered into force.
Since the end of the Cold War, the United States and Russia have made significant progress in addressing problems in critical areas of nuclear safety and security. Cooperatively, the two countries are working, with some success, to improve the overall security of former Soviet nuclear facilities, promote fissile material control and accountability, and support the dismantlement of some Russian nuclear forces.
There remain other areas of concern that could benefit from expanded cooperation. One candidate is the possible sharing of early warning data to enhance command and control and to increase stability in peacetime as well as during potential crises. The United States and Russia began preliminary high-level discussions on the possibility of cooperating on early warning in the summer of 1992, in the context of U.S. and Russian proposals for establishing global protection against ballistic missiles. At that time, it was becoming clear that Russia would experience a loss of radar coverage from sites that, following the break-up of the Soviet Union, would be located outside its territory. Consequently, among other things, the discussions explored ways that could fill gaps in the Russian early warning system. It was anticipated that such cooperation would be particularly useful on the southern periphery to provide better early warning against states that