On How Tragedy Leads to Deception in The Tragedy of Hamlet Prince of Denmark

On How Tragedy Leads to Deception in: "The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark"

In the play "The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark," William Shakespeare has used the theme of deception, and how its use by one or more characters leads to their downfall. Polonius explicitly stated this theme when he said to Laertes in I, ii, "By indirections find directions out." Each major character in Hamlet, in his or her own way, provided an example of this theme. By using deceit the characters in "Hamlet" employed methods to fulfill their own agenda, an action that ultimately resulted in tragedy.
Shakespeare\'s use of deception is seen most clearly in Hamlet\'s actions. He began to "act mad" early in the play in order to manipulate his friends. "…Hereafter [I] shall… put an antic disposition on" (I.v.171-2). Hamlet swore to use this antic disposition to uncover his father\'s murderer. He used this performance as a tool of artifice in order to cover up his true feelings. Hamlet went too far however, and his underhanded plan began to work against him.
By not coming clean with those he trusts most, Hamlet served to alienate them from himself, and from his cause (of avenging his father\'s death). In III i, Hamlet said to Ophelia, "God hath given you a face, and you make [yourself] another." Prince Hamlet hypocritically attacked her for concealing her opinions, while he counterfeited his own opinions with the antic disposition. Ophelia is not the only character he acted mad toward; he used the same duplicity toward all characters in the play. When speaking to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, for example, he asked them to "be even and direct" with him, but did not inform them of the intent behind his own deceitful actions. As shown when Rozencrantz said to Hamlet, "You… bar the door upon your own liberty, if you deny [telling] your griefs to your friend[s]" (III.ii.317-8), Hamlet had not been fully open with his friends.
Hamlet\'s use of an antic disposition is what lead to his death. He had overdone his acting mad, and the madness he had created began to control him as seen in V, ii when Hamlet speaks of himself in the third person to Laertes:

…I here proclaim [my] madness… If Hamlet from himself be ta\'en away, / And when he\'s not himself, does wrong Laertes, / Then hamlet does it not, Hamlet denies it: / Who does it then? His madness. If\'t be so, / Hamlet is of the faction that is wronged, / His madness is poor Hamlet\'s enemy." (Lines 213-22)

Hamlet\'s acting mad swelled to such a level that he could not claim responsibility for the offenses that he committed. His loss of control is a crucial aspect of the play\'s theme, because it shows Hamlet\'s deterioration by the same actions he had previously preformed in order to mask his true outlook.
Claudius is another character in "Hamlet" who used treachery to reach his objective. Everything he tried to accomplish he did in a sly manner, beginning with the killing of his brother. The ghost of the king saw Claudius as a man, "…[ who has] the power… to seduce… my most virtuous queen." He killed the king not by confrontation, but with a "leprous distilment" poured slowly and quietly into his ear. The sly manner in which he did this is what spurred Hamlet to seek revenge. Claudius, while praying, admitted to himself that he could not repent for what he had done: "Yet what can it, when one cannot repent?" (III.iii.66). He knew what he did was wrong, and that it would come to haunt him in the form of the tragic loss of his life.
Through underhanded means King Claudius tried to kill Hamlet several times. The first of which he used Rosencrantz and Guildenstern as guardians accompanying Hamlet to England,

I like him not, nor stands it safe with us / To let his madness rage. Therefore prepare you, / I your commission will forthwith dispatch, / And he to England shall along with you: / The terms of our estate may not endure / Hazard so near\'s as doth hourly grow / Out of his brows" (III.iii.1-7).

The king recognized his nephew\'s