One Nation One People One Culture



One Nation, One People, One Culture
As the eighteenth century drew to a close, the new American Republic teetered between the danger of collapse and the promise of greatness. By expanding westward to occupy most of North America, the United States might develop into imperial wealth and power; if the nation could survive its first vulnerable decades. The great paradox of the new nation was that its short-term prospects appeared dire and its long-term prospects appeared limitless. This paradox derived from the immense size and resources of the continent where riches that could either pull apart or pull together the people striving to possess them.
The continental scale of American history immediately threatened to overwhelm and fracture the young republic sprawled along the Atlantic seaboard from Maine to Georgia. The first president, George Washington, played an important role in promoting national unity, but Washington had a reputation for promoting executive power, which was not incompatible with the people\'s welfare. In 1791, the Secretary of War warned the President: "The United States have come into existence as a nation, embarrassed with a frontier of immense extent." Expansion westward might weaken the coastal states while creating new independent, and hostile settler states in the interior; and those politics might gravitate into the rival empires of the South. Moreover, the nations gamble on a republican frame of government enhanced the prospects of such a centrifugal dissipation.
The people were looking for stability and in April 1789, the first Congress began to construct the Bill of Rights. Giving the people individual liberties, and helped construct a boundary between federal and state authority. People who had not liked the Constitution were happier with the Bill of Rights, which had an immediate effect of solidifying a sense of national unity.
Women had active civic roles and responsibility. The republican women\'s most important role was to reform and sustain the morality and manners of men and emphasize the importance of mothers as the teachers of virtuous sons. Gender relation remained unchanged since the Revolution, but literacy and knowledge for women was encouraged for maternal duty.
Even with the nation\'s advances, many still worried about westward expansion and the fatigue of the government when it grew so large. With the fears set aside the 1790s witnessed new prosperity and economic growth, with changes in finance and growth in agriculture and transportation.
By the end of the 1790s commercial marketing for farmers had skyrocketed. The demand in Europe for cotton and grain increased overseas. Grain trade had generated many new jobs. Eli Whitney\'s cotton gin turned the United States into one of the largest exporters of colon in the world. All the wealth of marketing gave new concepts to improve the transportation systems. Building roadways generated westward movement, and by 1800 four new states joined the union. Because the south was less populated, it began to fall behind the north in forms of transportation. The increase of oversea trade stimulated the findings of a commercial class in major port cities. The people of this class were wealthy who dealt with trade overseas and owned some of the ships that carried the goods. This was the creation of a new federal government, and the rise of commercial banks further stimulated the growing economy.
Alexander Hamilton, head of the Treasury wanted the Revolutionary War state debts to be "taken care of," by the national government. He did not envision paying of the debt, but wanted to create a large permanent national debt. He believed that creditors, the wealthy class, would lend money to the government. Even though many opposed his plan including Jefferson and Madison, Congress passed Hamilton\'s plan. The National Bank of the United States was also Hamilton\'s plan, private corporation that would work for the public\'s good. Jefferson and Madison opposed this idea, too, claiming it to be unconstitutional. But the bank bill passed, because Hamilton agreed that the "necessary and proper" constitutional clause gave the federal government the power to create that bank. Hamilton proposed an excise tax on whiskey and other distilled spirits to meet the interest payment on the national debt. Western farmers did not like this tax; they began protesting and terrorizing tax collectors. This was called the Whiskey Rebellion, which did not last long, but it was