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Police Use of Deadly Force: Canadian Perspectives
Linda P. Graham
Price: CAN $9.00
Dimensions: 6 x 9 inches
Pages: xvii + 195
© 1985 Centre of Criminology, University of Toronto
All Rights Reserved
This monograph examines an important and, on occasions, controversial subject: the use by
Canadian police of deadly force. Although the number of citizens killed each year by police in
Canada is small when compared with countries like the United States, any use by law
enforcement officers of fatal force merits study.
The monograph reviews the limited official information available in Canada about police
shootings and also considers in some detail the provisions of the criminal and civil law
regarding this aspect of police power. A comprehensive analysis is presented of a number of
cases of police shooting deaths in British Columbia between 1970 and 1982. Based on this
analysis, and also drawing upon the results of comparative research conducted largely in the
United States, the authors make a series of recommendations concerning the legal,
administrative and allied controls which should apply to the police use of deadly force in
This monograph will be of interest not only to those secifically concerned with policing but also to
law reformers, criminologists, political scientists, sociologists, and other social scientists.
September 14, 1998
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Deadly Force 10/20/00
Binder, Arnold and Lorie Fridell. 1984. "Lethal Force as a Police Response." Criminal Justice Abstracts
Blumberg, Mark. 1993. "Controlling Police Use of Deadly Force: Assessing Two Decades of Progress." Pp.
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Cloninger, Dale O. 1991. "Lethal Police Response as a Crime Deterrent." American Journal of Economics and
Cullen, Francis T., Liqun Cao, James Frank, Robert H. Langworthy, Sandra Lee Browning, Renee Kopache, and
Thomas J. Stevenson. 1996. ""Stop or Iíll Shoot": Racial Differences in Support for Police Use of Deadly Force."
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Geller, William A. 1982. "Deadly Force: What We Know." Journal of Police Science and Administration.
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and Planning D; Society and Space 13:185-199.
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Langworthy, Robert. 1986. "Police Shooting and Criminal Homicide: The Temporal Relationship." Journal of
Quantitataive Criminology 2:377-388.
Mays, C. Larry and William A. Taggart. 1985. "Deadly Force as a Policy Problem in Local Law Enforcement: Do
Administrative Practices Make a Difference." Policy Studies Review 5:309-318.
Nielsen, Eric 1983. "Policy on the Police Use of Deadly Force: A Cross-sectional Analysis." Journal of Police
Science and Administration 11:104-108.
Sherman, Lawrence W. 1980b. "Execution Without Trial: Police Homicide and the Constitution." Vanderbilt Law
_____. 1983. "Reducing Police Gun Use: Critical Events, Administrative Policy, and Organizational Change." Pp.
98-125 in Control in the Police Organization, edited by
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Sherman, Lawrence W. and Ellen G. Bohr. 1986. Citizens Killed by Big City Police, 1970-1984. Washington DC:
Crime Control Institute.
Sorensen, Jonathan R., James W. Marquart and Deon E. Brock. 1993. "Factors Related to Killings of Felons by
Police Officers: A Test of the Community Violence and Conflict Hypotheses." Justice Quarterly 10:417-440.
Sparger, Jerry R. and David J. Giacopassi. 1992. "Memphis Revisited: A Reexamination of Police Shootings after
the Garner Decision." Justice Quarterly 9:211-225.
Tennenbaum, Abraham N. 1984. "The Influence of the Garner Decision on Police Use of Deadly Force." Journal of
Criminal Law and Criminology 85:241-260.
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______. 1984b. "The Use of Lethal Force by Police: The Effect of Statutory Change." Crime and Delinquency
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