Population growth in Brazil and its effects





Introduction
The population of the world today is 6,112,911,145 and progressively growing. Unfortunately, that figure is expected to double by the year 2050. Four-fifths of this population resides in developing countries of the “South”. Because of extreme levels of fertility, mortality, and new migration, these developing countries are accountable for most of the world population growth. There are many reasons that explain why the numbers are increasing, but the main reason is the way of life for many of the people inhabiting these regions. With the combination of an unmet demand for family planning and the desire for a large family, the world’s Total Fertility Rate(TFI) is 3.1. This is significantly higher than the average population replacement TFI of 2.1.
The population explosion is forcing people to migrate away from the city and into the surrounding area, which is causing an urbanization of the rural areas. To support this spreading, roads and cities are being constructed where plant and animal rich ecosystems exist. One region of particular global concern is the Amazon Rainforest and the effect of the spreading population from the coastal areas of Brazil. Currently, Brazil has a population of 172,860,370 people. A majority of this population currently depends on the local rainforest to support human growth. It has been reported that at current deforestation rates, only scattered remnants of tropical rainforests will exits and a quarter of a the species on Earth will be extinct by the time today’s preschoolers retire. However, because of the ever-growing need for development, the soil, the trees, and the wildlife of the Amazon Rainforest are suffering at the hands of a demanding population growth.

Soil Condition and Agriculture, Politics and Industry
Agriculture is a big factor in the rainforest region of Brazil, which is the fifth biggest country in the world and home of 140 million people. It allows one third of its population (the ca. 400 native tribes, the poor and the migrating people) to support themselves, their families, and the rest of the nation. While the coastal regions, which contain two thirds of Brazil’s population, are in dire need of food products and depend on the local agriculture, Brazil’s production of coffee, sugarcane, cassava, bananas, and sisal is number one in the world. In the Western Hemisphere, it is the leading producer of rice and pulses (beans, peas, and lentils). It ranks second in the world with the production of oranges, cocoa, and soybeans, and third in the production of black pepper, and corn (maize) and in the size of its herds of cattle and hogs. With the help of more intensive farming technology (like the use of fertilizer, use of hoes for weeding, or planting of crops in rows rather than scattering seeds), the amount of land that poor people need to reclaim from forests to feed themselves could be reduced by high numbers.
Politicians are aware of the problems and many are trying to promote the idea of plantation forestry, by abandoning government policies that explicitly encourage deforestation, by reforming the timber industry, and restricting the logging in general.
Today, 85% of Brazils amazon jungle region is still covered in trees. To keep this important area in the temporary condition, plantation forestry (as a source of additional income) is promoted, since it can be just as profitable as chopping trees from virgin forest. It has the obvious advantage that growers can choose which species to cultivate. Developing countries with hot climates have the competitive advantage in this market, simply because trees grow much faster than in temperate climates.
The pressure of the green lobby abroad got the authorities to dismantle some of the more obvious incentives to wreck environmental havoc as well. In the beginning of the 1990s, a series of tough environmental laws were passed, prohibiting the landowners from logging more than 50% of their land. Deforestation went down in the Brazilian Amazon from 29,000 square kilometers in 1995 to 18,100 square kilometers in 1996. Partially responsible for the decrease was the creation of the program for prevention and control of the forest fires in last July with $25.9 million from the World Bank and the Brazilian government.
Since the population kept growing extensively during the 1960s and 1970s, Brazil had to answer the needs