Scientific View of Creation





Scientific View of Creation
A common question among people is why are things the way they are? How was our world created? There are many different theories, from a variety of views. In this paper I will discuss the scientific view of the creation theory.
The theory that I will be discussing is the Big Bang Theory, this is currently the theory of creation accepted by most scientists as the explanation of the beginning of the universe. The big bang theory suggests that the universe was once extremely compact, dense, and hot. Some uncommon event, a cosmic explosion called the big bang, occurred about 10 billion to 20 billion years ago, and the universe has since been expanding and cooling.
The theory is based on mathematical equations, known as the field equations. These equations come from the general theory of relativity, established in 1915 by Albert Einstein.
In 1922 a Russian physicist named Alexander Friedmann provided a set of solutions to the field equations. These solutions have served as the basis for a lot of the present day work on the big bang theory. American astronomer Edwin Hubble provided some of the strongest supporting evidence for the Big Bang Theory. In 1929 he discovered that the light of distant galaxies was shifted toward the red end of the spectrum in the Doppler Effect. This proved that the galaxies were moving away from each other. He found that galaxies farther away were moving away faster, showing that the universe is expanding uniformly. However, the universe\'s initial state was still unknown.
In the 1940’s Russian-American physicist, George Gamow, worked out a theory that worked in correlation with Friedmann\'s solutions in which the universe expanded from a hot, dense state. The actual title “The Big Bang Theory” came in 1950 when British astronomer Fred Hoyle, in support of his own opposing theory referred to Gamow\'s theory as a mere "big bang," and the name stuck. During the 1990’s Sky & Telescope magazine ran a contest to find a better, more dignified name, but no change was made.
The overall framework of the big bang theory remains unchanged, but some details of the theory are still being modified today. For example, Einstein himself initially believed that the universe was static. But when his equations seemed to show that the universe was either expanding or contracting, Einstein added a constant term to cancel out the expansion or contraction of the universe. Then, when the expansion of the universe was later discovered, Einstein stated that adding this "cosmological constant" had been a mistake.
After Einstein\'s work of 1917, several scientists, including the abbé Georges Lemaître in Belgium, Willem de Sitter in Holland, and Alexander Friedmann in Russia, came up with solutions of their own to Einstein\'s field equations. The universes described by the different scientists varied. De Sitter\'s model had no matter in it. This model is actually not considered to be a bad approximation since the average density of the universe is extremely low. Lemaître\'s universe expanded from a "primeval atom." Friedmann\'s universe also expanded from a very dense clump of matter, but did not involve the cosmological constant. These models helped explain what happened to the universe shortly after its creation, but there was still no satisfactory explanation for the beginning of the universe.
In the 1940’s George Gamow was joined by his students, Ralph Alpher and Robert Herman in working out details of Friedmann\'s solutions to Einstein\'s theory. They expanded on Gamow\'s idea that the universe expanded from a primordial state of matter called “ylem”, consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons in a sea of radiation. They theorized that the universe was very hot at the time of the “big bang”, since elements heavier than hydrogen can only be formed at a very high temperature. Alpher and Hermann predicted that radiation from the big bang should still exist, and should therefore be detectable. This was the case in 1960 when background radiation was detected corresponding to the temperature predicted by Gamow\'s team. This discovery further supported the big bang theory.
The big bang theory tries to explain what happened at or soon after the beginning of the universe. Today scientists can model the universe back to 10-43 seconds after the big bang. In the time before