Texas vs Johnson

H.W. 46 What role did Theodore Roosevelt play in the Progressive Movement?
Rd pp. 429-434

1. Define what Roosevelt meant by “Square Deal”
Roosevelt meant by the Square Deal that the mining operators did not have a
choice. They had to submit to what the government said and had to make a deal with the
union, led by Mitchell. In a sense, they really had no end in the, consequently called the
square deal.

2. Explain Roosevelt role in the a) anthracite coal strike b.) Northern Securities Case c)
Hepburn Act d) conservation of natural resources

Anthracite Coal Strike - Many miners were dying needlessly every year. The men
received no raise in wages in 20 years. They were paid by the weight of the coal they dug,
but the companies were not weighing honestly. By 1902 they could not dig anymore. John
Mitchell became leader of the union with 150,000 strong. After TR. got involved they
resolved the strike and the union and workers got mostly what they asked for.

Northern Securities Case - It was a holding company, a corporation set up to hold a
controlling part of the stock of other companies. It was formed by James J. Hill of the
great northern.,the rockefellers, JP Morgan, and EH Harriman. They brought peace
between the competitors over the stock of one of the railroads. These men with great
wealth had plagued a whole region and disrupted the nations stock market by their fight
for monopoly. So TR. sued them. He said that they violated the Sherman Antitrust Act.
The court then asked that it dissolve.

Hepburn Act (1906) - Gave the ICC power over pipelines, express and sleeping car
companies, bridges, ferries, and terminals. Railroad rebates and free passes were
forbidden. If a shipper complained about any unfair rate, the Commission could reduce
the rate until a federal court ruled on its fairness. It marked a major step on the path to
effective federal regulation of business.

Conservation of natural resources - In 1891 Congress gave power to the President over
“public land wholly or in part covered with timber.” He could set them apart as forest
reserves. President Harrison, Cleveland , and McKinley had set aside 50 million acres .
Now Roosevelt increased the number of national forests to 149 totaling over 190 million
acres an area equal to Great Britain and France combined. He also withdrew of acres of
public land having waterpower sites ad deposits of oil , coal, and phosphates. He took
steps to prevent illegal use of the public lands by lumber companies and cattle raisers. He
transferred forests from the Public land office to the United States Forest Service, headed
by Pinchot. Pinchot planned reforesting, the planting of trees, to go along with the cutting
go trees. He saw the nation’s forests as a living resource that always had to be renewed.

3. Make