tomatoe diseases

Bacterial Spot (bacterial - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria)
Infected leaves show small, brown, water soaked, circular spots about one-eighth inch in diameter. The spots may have a yellow halo. This is because the centers dry out and frequently tear. on older plants the leaflet infection is mostly on older leaves and may cause serious defoliation. The most striking symptoms are on the green fruit. Small, water-soaked spots first appear which later become raised and enlarge
until they are one-eighth to one-fourth inch in diameter. Centers of these lesions become light brown and slightly sunken with a rough, scabby surface. Ripe fruits are not susceptible to the disease.. but the surface of the seed becomes contaminated with the bacteria The organism may also alternate hosts over winter, by getting on volunteer tomato plants and on infected plant debris. Moist weather and splattering rains are ecential to disease development. Most outbreaks of the disease can be traced back to heavy rainstorms that occur in the area. the Infection of the leaves may occur through natural openings. The infection of other fruits may occur through insect punctures, sandblasting and other mechanical injury means. Bacterial spot is difficult to control once it appears in the field.
Late Blight (fungal - Phytophthora infestans)
Lesions produced on the leaves are at first large, greenish-black, and water-soaked. These areas enlarge, becoming brown, and under humid conditions, develop a white moldy growth near the edge of the diseased area on the lower surface of the leaves or on stems. The disease spreads rapidly under humid conditions, destroying large areas of tissue. Fruit lesions occur as large, green to dark brown, mostly on the upper half of the fruit. Also, a white moldy growth may appear on fruits in humid conditions. The fungus produces an abundant number of spores which may be splashed by rains or be airborne. These spores infect healthy leaves, stems and fruit if weather conditions are good. Ideal conditions for late blight development are cool nights, moderately warm days, abundant moisture. Hot and dry weather reduces disease development.
Gray Leaf Spot (fungal : Stemphylium solani)
First infection appears as small, brownish-black specks on the lower leaves that extend through to the under surface of the leaf. These spots usually remain small, but may enlarge until they are about one-eighth inch in diameter. The spots become glazed and the centers crack. Infected leaves usually die and fall off. spots may also form on the stems of the host plant.

Causal Agent(s): (fungal - Fulvia (Cladosporium) fulvum)

Leaf mold is usually first observed on older leaves near the soil where air movement is poor and
humidity is high. At first, diffuse whitish spots appear on the upper surfaces of older leaves; these
rapidly enlarge and become yellow. Under humid conditions, the lower surface of these spots
become covered with a gray, velvety growth of the spores produced by the fungus. When conditions
are proper for fungal development, large areas of the field are infected, plants are weakened and the
crop is greatly reduced. The fungus produces abundant spores during periods of high temperature
and very high relative humidity. Infection occurs readily, and the disease becomes established in the
fields quickly. The best control of this disease is by using a preventative fungicide program at 7 to 10
day intervals, the same as used for late and early blight control.

Buckeye Rot

Causal Agent(s): (fungal - Phytophthora parasitica)

This disease occurs on tomato mainly on the fruit, particularly where it touches the soil. The fungus is
different from the one causing late blight, which affects both leaves and fruit. Buckeye rot is first
noticed as a light green water-soaked area on the fruit. Later, dark zonate bands can be seen on the
surface of affected areas. The surface of the lesion is usually smooth and firm. With time, the entire
fruit will rot. The fungus lives in the soil and it can also affect pepper. The disease is more
troublesome in heavy, poorly drained soils during prolonged warm wet weather.

Nailhead Spot

Causal Agent(s): (fungal - Alternaria tomato)

Leaf symptoms are the same as those caused by early blight on fruits; however, spots are smaller,
with slightly sunken centers and dark margins. As the spots become older, the edges become
roughened. On ripe fruit, the tissue immediately around the spots often remains green. Control is the
same as for early blight.