UNTITLED





Advances in AI With advances in technology many researchers have become captivated with the pursuit of Artificial Intelligence. Numerous fields of study have tried to contribute their knowledge in order to create intelligence. However, years of research have thus far been unable to create human intelligence. The endeavour seems doomed to fail, for a century of thought which has tried to simply define intelligence has yet to succeed. This lack of a concrete tangible definition does not preclude its existence but merely points to its complex nature. Human intelligence could be viewed as being as diverse as its population however this type of analysis leads us to the individual and becomes useless. There is no doubt that there are universal patterns of what could be considered intelligence and it is these patterns which may give us insight. Because these patterns of ‘intelligence’ could be linked to humanity’s evolution, much time is devoted to find what forces or factors are responsible for them. There are few who would still adhere to a model of Nature vs. Nurture rather substituting the vs. for via. Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to human intelligence, however which of these, if any, is more important in shaping intelligence is a source of fierce disagreement. It seems apparent that those who posses higher levels of intelligence are accorded a certain amount of privilege. Therefore where intelligence comes from is essential in determining the validity of endowing privilege on those who posses it. Is it the case that the very definition of intelligence is socially constructed in order to maintain the existing social inequalities? Is it the case that social inequalities are merely a reflection of the variance in intelligence? Do social inequalities reduce the oppressed ability to develop intelligence? Is intelligence merely a small factor contributing to the uneven distribution of resources within our world? Is intelligence a product of hard work or just luck? Evolution of Intelligence Before we can begin to examine the modern day conceptions of intelligence, it is necessary to look at how human intelligence has evolved. For the purpose of simplicity I am making the assumption that the general theory of evolution is accurate. That is that human did not spontaneously appear on Earth and are a product of millions of years of evolution. Therefore it is conceivable that the very way in which we think was once quite different from today’s mode of logic and reason. Amaury de Reincourt looks at a turning point in the evolution of human intelligence in her article “Sex and Power in History”. In this article she examines the rise of patriarchy out of matriarchy. She iterates how this shift was a result of man’s gradual development of his role in procreation. This marked a mental threshold from magico-symbolic thought processes to rational thinking. The creation of life was now understood in terms of causality rather than mysticism. From this point forth, all the female-oriented myths were reinterpreted patriarchally. The cyclical nature of female-oriented thought was replaced by the linear thought patterns of male-oriented thinking. This further led to the notion of progress and later reflective thought. The mythology that prevailed under matriarchal rule was replaced by the masculine thought process of rationalism and logic. The overall effect is that tension replaced repetitive rhythm. This led the way to the concept of time as being unidirectional instead of the lunar-vegetal cycle which previously set-up the notion of time. History could now be viewed with a beginning, middle, and an end. This had great significance in releasing man from the endless repetitive cycles of time, which could now be seen as a linear development with unique moral significance for each step of the way. It is apparent from this article that logic and reason are not value neutral, they are concepts which are steeped in a particular ideology. What it also inadvertently points to the idea of interpreting intelligence from completely opposite perspectives. Thinking in terms of cycles instead of our linear modes of thoughts produces completely different types or patterns of intelligence. It serves as a caution in trying to determine and define the very slippery notion of intelligence. Intelligence defined The inherent difficulty in studying intelligence is reflected one of psychology’s maxims; ‘the human