Virtues are gifts from God that lead us to live in a close relationship with him. Virtues are like habits. They need to be practiced; they can be lost if they are neglected. The three most important virtues are called theological virtues because they come from God and lead to God. The cardinal virtues are human virtues, acquired by education and good actions. Cardinal comes from cardo, the Latin word for hinge, meaning "that on which other things depend." The cardinal virtues are the four principal moral virtues. All other virtues hinge on these four: prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance. These virtues were propounded by Plato in his book, The Republic. Unlike the theological virtues, which are the gifts of God through grace, the four cardinal virtues can be practiced by anyone; thus, they represent the foundation of natural morality. For Quennell (1945), "Prudence, the "mother" of all of the virtues, is the virtue by which a person recognizes his or her moral duty and the good means to accomplish it. Actually, prudence is part of the definition of goodness." A person can be prudent and good only simultaneously. No other virtue can contradict what is prudent. Therefore, what is prudent is substantially what is good, and prudence is the measure of justice, temperance, and fortitude. A prudent person looks at the concrete reality of a situation with a clear, honest objectivity; references and applies the moral truths (e.g the 10 Commandments or the teachings of the Church); makes a moral judgment; and then commands an action. Moreover, prudence also seeks to accomplish the action in a good way- doing what is good always in a good way. Clearly, prudence is essential for the formation and operation of one's conscience. To be a prudent person, one must know God's truth, just as to have a good conscience, one must know God's truth. One cannot do what is good if one does not know the principles of truth and goodness.To prudently examine a situation and then to determine a course of action, one must keep in mind three aspects of prudence: memoria, docilitas, and solertia. Memoria simply means having a "true-to-being" memory which contains real things and events as they really are now and were in the past. Everyone must learn from their past experiences. Remembering what is to be done or avoided from past experiences helps to alert us to the occasions and causes of sin, to prevent us from making the same mistakes twice, and to inspire us to do what is good. Docilitas means that a person must have docility, an open-mindedness, which makes the person receptive to the advice and counsel of other people. A person should always seek and heed the wise counsel of those who are older, more experienced, and more knowledgeable. Finally, the exercise of prudence involves solertia, which is sagacity. Here a person has a clear vision of the situation at hand, foresees the goal and consequences of an action, considers the special circumstances involved, and overcomes the temptation of injustice, cowardice, or intemperance. With solertia, a person acts in a timely manner with due reflection and consideration to decide what is good and how to do the good. With a well-formed conscience attuned to God's truth, and with the proper exercise of memoria, docilitas, and solertia, a person will act prudently (Kraut 2007).Prudence is the virtue that disposes practical reason to discern our true good in every circumstance and to choose the right means of achieving it; "the prudent man looks where he is going." "Keep sane and sober for your prayers." Prudence is "right reason in action," writes Kraut (2007), following Aristotle. It is not to be confused with timidity or fear, nor with duplicity or dissimulation. It is called auriga virtutum (the charioteer of the virtues); it guides the other virtues by setting rule and measure. It is prudence that immediately guides the judgment of conscience. The prudent man determines and directs his conduct in accordance with this judgment. With the help of this virtue we apply moral principles to particular cases without error and overcome doubts about the good to achieve and the evil to avoid.Contrary to the above, vices